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Occasional Paper 1: Medieval Occupation at RAF Quedgeley, Gloucestershire
Occasional Paper 1 presents the results of archaeological excavations at the site of the former RAF Quedgeley, Gloucestershire. The archaeological potential of the area was confirmed by field evaluation comprising both geophysical survey and trial trenching, being just north of the Scheduled medieval moat at Manor Farm. Excavation revealed a sequence of occupation dating from the 11th century AD through to the 18th, with a farmhouse rebuilt several times between the 11th and 15th centuries. One notable interest of the site lies in the evidence of pottery supply to a rural community over this long time span. There is also limited evidence for Iron Age and Roman occupation in the area.
A4 soft cover, 22pp, illustrated throughout including 3 colour plates.
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Occasional Paper 2: Medieval Boundaries and an early Post-medieval Manor House at Beeches Manor, Reading Road, Wokingham, Berkshire
Excavations on the site of Beeches Manor revealed evidence for medieval, early post-medieval, and 19th–20th century occupation. The medieval occupation is represented only by enclosure ditches and a pit, over a time span which the pottery chronology is unable to help refine between the 11th and 15th centuries. A substantial house on the site, perhaps dating from the early 17th century, is known to have formed the core of a building destroyed by fire in 1961. This may be supposed to have been built by alderman John Whitlock, who owned the manor at least by 1628. Cartographic evidence from the 18th and early 19th century shows a larger complex of buildings on the site which included a brewhouse. The central portion of this house survived while the remainder of the complex was comprehensively demolished between 1817 and 1830. The core of the house was then extended and the gardens were re-landscaped, either at the same time or at least prior to 1909, to include a sunken lawn, a pond and several outbuildings, greenhouses and cisterns/wells.
A4 soft cover, 26pp, illustrated throughout including 11 colour plates.
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Occasional Paper 3: Middle Bronze Age and Middle Iron Age Occupation and Post-medieval Lime Kilns at RAF Staff College, Broad Lane, Bracknell, Berkshire
An excavation within the grounds of the former RAF Staff College site, Bracknell revealed a number of features ranging in date from middle Bronze Age to post-medieval. Two phases of prehistoric activity were recorded: the middle Bronze Age represented by pits; and the middle Iron Age represented by pits, two ring gully structures, dated by radiocarbon, and field boundaries. A few sherds of medieval pottery point to only slight use of the site at this time. Much more activity was recorded for early post-medieval times with various ditched boundaries and pits, and an area of industrial activity dating from the mid 16th to 17th century which comprised two lime kilns and a well and may relate to the production of mortar for construction of Ramslade House which formed the original Staff College.
A4 soft cover, 24pp, illustrated throughout including 2 colour plates.
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Occasional Paper 4: Medieval Occupation in Marston, Oxford
Marston, just to the north-east of Oxford, has seen little formal archaeological investigation. Over the winter of 2012/13, two small excavations side by side revealed a surprising density of medieval pits and ditches, giving the first indications of the medieval layout of the village, with origins apparently in the 12th century, and little that need be later than the 14th century. There appears to be a distinct break in occupation through the 15th century before a modest revival in the 16th. Although the areas investigated were relatively small, and no structural remains were encountered, the north-eastern edge of the settlement seems to have been established, in much the same position as it was mapped in the late 18th century: the boundary ditches excavated here bounded an area that contained pits to the south and west and no features to north and east.
A4 soft cover, 21pp, illustrated throughout including 8 colour plates.
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Occasional Paper 5: Bronze Age and Middle Iron Age Occupation and Roman Fields at Lidsey Landfill, Woodgate, West Sussex
Evaluation trenching and subsequent open area excavation were undertaken in advance of expansion at Lidsey Landfill in West Sussex. The fieldwork revealed predominantly prehistoric occupation with the Middle Bronze Age through to Middle Iron Age being the principal periods represented by clusters of pits and postholes followed by enclosures and small areas of fields. The area was overlain by a series of Roman field boundaries which commenced early in the Roman period but had gone out of use by later Roman times. Subsequent activity was only represented by a few sherds of early Saxon pottery, a medieval pit and post-medieval and modern field boundaries.
A4 soft cover, 44pp, illustrated throughout including 10 colour plates.
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Occasional Paper 6: Medieval Haddenham, Buckinghamshire: Excavations at Townsend and Fort End, 2011 and 2013
This paper details the findings of two excavations undertaken at locations within Haddenham. The first of these, at 5 Townsend, was conducted in 2011 and uncovered evidence of the development of the late Saxon and medieval village. The findings showed that this period of occupation was followed by a time of abandonment before reuse in the post-medieval period. Residual pre-Saxon finds hint at the sporadic use of the site in earlier periods. The second excavation was undertaken at 2 Fern Lane, Fort End in 2013. Here the digging revealed a series of linear ditches of an 11th - 12th century date which most likely represent a property boundary relating to a 'croft'. This boundary was redefined several times before being abandoned in the 12th century, much earlier than the commonly observed phases of abandonment in the 14th century Haddenham and elsewhere.
A4 soft cover, 36pp, illustrated throughout including 11 colour plates.
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Occasional Paper 7: Medieval Settlement at Oak Farm, Milcombe, Banbury, Oxfordshire: Excavation in 2012
An excavation at Oak Farm has explored a component of the medieval settlement at Milcombe. Occupation appears to have commenced in the 11th century, perhaps within the late Saxon period with the construction of a droveway. The manor of Milcombe was mentioned in Domesday Book in 1086. Subsequent phases of use in the 11th-13th century included the presence of rectangular post-built structures. These were eventually replaced by stone-founded buildings in the 13th to 15th centuries which also included a probable dovecote. Evidence of use in the early post-medieval period is rather slight but the site become incorporated within the Oak Farm complex in the 19th century.
A4 soft cover, 23pp, illustrated throughout including 7 colour plates.
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Occasional Paper 8: Roman and Medieval occupation at the former Worcester City Football Club, St George's Lane, Worcester
A small area excavation revealed a dense cluster of multi-period archaeological deposits ranging from (probably) the Iron Age, Roman, medieval and post-medieval periods. A single un-urned cremation burial is only very tentatively dated to the late Iron Age, but could equally be Roman. The site primarily comprised large boundary ditches, with a minimum of three reorganizations of the layout in the Roman period. Although a small number of pits and postholes were identified, and a moderate quantity of Roman tile, no associated structures were revealed, but the presence of this material suggests a building in the near vicinity. Large quantities of iron smelting slag and fragments of furnace lining suggest that iron production was occurring on or near to the site with a minimum of two furnaces implied. No furnace remains were present within the area examined.
A4 soft cover, 26pp, illustrated throughout including 8 colour plates.
Occasional Paper 9: Middle/Later Bronze Age Occupation at Manor Road, Burgess Hill, West Sussex
A small excavation was carried out in advance of a housing development on the outskirts of Burgess Hill, following an earlier evaluation which revealed several Bronze Age features. The excavation uncovered an unenclosed occupation site radiocarbon dated to the middle to late Bronze Age and a possible cremation burial pit. While sites of this period are relatively common on the chalk downlands and coastal plain of Sussex, they are extremely rare on the claylands of the Weald. Two features were notable for the large number of clay loomweights they contained.
A4 soft cover, 22pp, illustrated throughout including 3 colour plates.
Occasional Paper 10: Excavation of Medieval Occupation at Ropetackle, Shoreham-by-Sea, West Sussex
Archaeological excavation on High Street, Shoreham-on-Sea, West Sussex revealed new evidence for the development of the town. Apart from a few stray finds of prehistoric struck flints, the site and adjacent areas were first lightly used in late Iron Age and early Roman times. No further use is documented until the late 12th century, when the formation of New Shoreham is historically documented. The site is then well used during the 13th and 14th centuries for domestic occupation activities, perhaps as a part of a single, large landholding. In common with many other medieval settlements across England this use comes to an abrupt end in the late 14th century, an observation easier to make than explain, though epidemic disease, economic decline or, for a coastal town, naval warfare, may all have their part to play. Sustained reuse was not to take place until 19th-century terraced houses were built, followed by a cinema, car show room, and latterly, the residential accommodation which necessitated the excavations described below. This paper includes reports on modest but significant assemblages of pottery and animal bones (among other finds). The quantity of ship nails among the metal finds suggests ship-breaking was among the activities on the site or nearby.
A4 soft cover, 26pp, illustrated throughout including 7 colour plates.
Occasional Paper 11: Medieval and Post-medieval Occupation at 47 Endless Street, Salisbury, Wiltshire
An archaeological excavation in central Salisbury revealed continuous occupation from the 13th century to modern times. Several standing walls were constructed from chalk blocks and formed a two-cell shaft-and-pit garderobe of High Medieval date. This was replaced by a later medieval well and truncated by a post-medieval boundary wall. The disuse fills of the garderobe, as well as clusters of intercutting cess or rubbish pits, of later medieval date, contained valuable information on the site's economy and the inhabitants' diet. A single sherd of late Bronze Age pottery recovered from a heavily truncated pit within a pit cluster may be indicative of limited prehistoric activity in the area. The site is considered to represent a single back-yard plot in the medieval period, sub-divided in post-medieval times. This Occasional Paper contains reports on locally significant stratified and well-dated assemblages of pottery, metallic finds, animal bones and plant remains which will form a baseline for future research into the medieval city, whose archaeology, has previously been surprisingly patchily documented.
A4 soft cover, 22pp, illustrated throughout including 13 colour plates.
Occasional Paper 12: A Middle Bronze Age Pit Circle and Field System, and Roman Settlement at Hitches Lane, Fleet, Hampshire
Archaeological excavations were carried out in advance of development in five areas at Hitches Lane, Fleet. Of special interest was the prehistoric activity: a 42m diameter pit circle and land division of Middle Bronze Age date. Finds were relatively few, but the chronology is supported by three radiocarbon dates. The largest of the excavation areas also contained a substantial 2nd-century Roman rectangular timber-framed building set within a system of fields and paddocks, which was remodelled around the middle of the 3rd century. A substantial furnace was located within this building, and a smaller one outside the structure. The building fell out of use in the early 4th century. A post-built circular Roman building was also recorded. The final phase of activity consisted of an earlier system of land allotment than that depicted on the earliest Ordnance Survey maps of this area.
A4 soft cover, 22pp, illustrated throughout including 13 colour plates.
Occasional Paper 13: The Archaeology of four Pipelines in Oxfordshire, Berkshire and Wiltshire
This paper details the findings of recording actions undertaken during the stripping of four pipeline routes in Oxfordshire, West Berkshire and Wiltshire.
Observations along a water pipeline route between Baydon Water Tower and Bailey Hill Reservoir on the Wiltshire/West Berkshire border recorded a Beaker-period pit; a possible Late Bronze Age enclosure; an undated lynchet possibly belonging to a ‘Celtic’ field pattern; part of the ‘Near Down ditch’ linear earthwork (also undated); and, most significantly, two overlapping Late Bronze Age post-built roundhouses.
The second, located on the Kennet floodplain at Chamberhouse Farm, Crookham Common, Thatcham, recorded a complex series of palaeohydrological deposits on the floor of the Kennet Valley.
These were overlain by a series of early Roman occupation deposits and, subsequently, medieval and post-medieval drainage ditches.
Excavations on an easement in advance of pipe laying between Moulsford and Streatley on either side of the Oxfordshire/West Berkshire border revealed a Bronze Age ring ditch and two pit clusters of late Bronze Age date. Two possible boundary ditches of early Iron Age date were also found. The final site is located on the Kingston Stert to Chinnor pipeline in eastern Oxfordshire. Here segments of two occupation sites of early and middle Roman date have been identified along with areas containing organised landscape features (field boundaries) also of Roman date. Isolated features of Bronze Age were also noted with one Bronze Age pit possibly having been involved in pottery production.
A4 soft cover, 22pp, illustrated throughout including 18 colour plates.
Occasional Paper 14: Two Roman Occupation Sites near Swindon: Wanborough and Purton
The two archaeological excavations presented in this volume, at Wanborough to the southeast of Swindon, and Purton to its west, primarily focus on Roman occupation and add to a growing picture of dense rural settlement in this area throughout the Roman period. At Stanley Close, Wanborough, the full extent of settlement was not exposed but the excavated area included enclosures defined by ditches and gullies, with pits and a possible drying oven. The deposits also include a decapitation burial, perhaps that of an old soldier. All seem to date to the middle to late part of the Roman period (later 2nd to 4th centuries AD). The economic evidence suggests a typical mixed agricultural settlement with the usual domesticated animals being raised and consumed on the site, but with an unexpectedly high incidence of horse. Charred plant remains were well represented, with wheat and some barley and oats, being grown and processed on the site.
A few Neolithic or Bronze Age flint flakes along with a small amount of Iron Age pottery and pits suggest some earlier activity in the area. Similarly a few sherds of Saxon and medieval pottery probably reflect use of the site as arable farmland well after the Roman site has gone out of use. At Battlewell, Purton, Roman settlement seems to have been continuous between the 1st and 4th centuries. The early phase included a post-built round house (only partially revealed); the middle Roman phase consisted of pits and a kiln or furnace; but the majority of features belonged to the later Roman occupation, including a rectangular timber building, partial remains of a stone building, a drying oven (pottery- or corn-drier) and a well containing a human burial. Economic data here were less plentiful but probably point to the same mixed subsistence base.
A4 soft cover, 22pp, illustrated throughout including 21 colour plates.
Occasional Paper 15: Archaeological Excavations inNorth Hampshire: sites in Basingstoke, Andover and Odiham
This volume brings together the results of archaeological excavations on four sites in northern Hampshire. At Marnel Park, Popley, Basingstoke, ditched enclosures were constructed towards the end of the Iron Age (late 1st century BC or early 1st century AD) and remained in use into the Roman period (early 2nd century AD). The early abandonment adds to a growing picture of rural settlement instability within the Roman period.
The excavation at 55 Chantry Street, Andover, mainly focussed on medieval occupation at what would then have been the edge of the town. The major feature might conceviably have been a mill race or a very substantial ditch, but its interpretation is very uncertain. The site was occupied from the 11th to 14th century but there was a marked lack of 15th- or early 16th-century evidence, until a cottage was built in the late 16th-century.
Two sites on the High Street in in Odiham offer contrasting perspectives on the development of this relatively little explored town. At number 23, an early Roman occupation, probably a farm, does not appear to have lasted long but there was evidence for both middle and late Saxon phases, probably again a farm, with some evidence for ironworking, radiocarbon dated to the 7th century. If occupation extended into the Medieval at all, however, it was surprisingly slight for such a central location. At number 106, in contrast, nothing appears to be earlier than the 13th century, suggesting this date for an expansion of the settled area further east than previously imagined. Again, however, the occupation was short-lived and the town’s growth overall may have been equally so.
A4 soft cover, 97pp, illustrated throughout including 25 colour plates.
Occasional Paper 16: Earlier and Later Neolithic Pits, Middle Iron Age Burials and Iron Age and Roman Enclosure at Highbury Avenue, Salisbury, Wiltshire
Despite extensive truncation of the site by foundations and terracing from the buildings of a former school, multi-period remains survived to be excavated. The likely presence of remains on the site had first been recognised by aerial photography before the school was built. The earliest prehistoric activity was represented by single examples of early and middle Neolithic pits. This was followed by Iron Age enclosure and occupation, along with eleven inhumation burials certainly or probably of Middle Iron Age date. Four of the burials were radiocarbon dated to between 376-152 cal. BC. Subsequent occupation continued into the Late Iron Age and early Roman period with the digging of another enclosure ditch. There followed an hiatus until later Roman re-occupation of the site with further ditch digging, probably forming another enclosure.
A4 soft cover, 59pp, illustrated throughout including 10 colour plates.
Occasional Paper 17: Archaeological Investigations in Sussex: Prehistoric and Roman features in Selsey, Worthing, Angmering and Horsham, and Medieval occupation in Hailsham, Horsham and Crawley
This collection of shorter papers details the findings of nine small excavations undertaken at locations across Sussex. The volume starts with a cluster of flint- and pottery- rich Earlier Neolithic pits at Worthing, followed by Bronze Age finds at Selsey and Angmering. A single Iron Age roundhouse at Broadbridge Heath, Horsham is notable for the rarity of such sites as yet recorded for the Weald. This is followed by Roman occupation at two locations in Worthing.
The remaining papers belong to the Medieval period, with sites at Hailsham, Barns Green, near Horsham and two sites in Crawley both with evidence of iron production for which the Crawley region is well known.
A4 soft cover, 123pp, illustrated throughout including 42 colour plates.
Occasional Paper 18: Roman and Post-medieval landscape features at Manor Farm, Kempsford, Gloucestershire
Over the course of eleven campaigns of archaeological excavation, covering an area approximately 1.5km by 0.5km, several phases of land use were defined. Dating is problematical but both early and late Roman elements can be identified, along with at least two post-medieval phases, and it is considered likely that some features on the site were pre-Roman (Iron Age), including a single, discontinuous boundary some 750m long. It is clear that a large parcel of landscape in the south-west of the site was divided up according to a single scheme in the Roman period, the basic elements of which (a ditched trackway and very large fields) lasted through Roman remodelling and appear to have influenced the post-medieval layout as well. A second, apparently unconnected, Roman field system occupies the north-east of the site. Finds of all kinds were rare and environmental evidence sparse, but molluscan analysis, nearly all from what have turned out to be post-medieval features, suggests the area was damp, perhaps water meadow, throughout that period. The disconnectedness of the Roman landscape elements supports the case for seeing this landscape as parcelled up on a large scale, yet at the same time piecemeal, with a density of a farm every kilometre or so.
A4 soft cover, 115pp, illustrated throughout including 18 colour plates.
Occasional Paper 19: Archaeological Excavations on Four Sites in Winchester, Hampshire
This volume brings together the results of archaeological excavations on four small sites in the historic city of Winchester, in Hampshire: two in the historic core of the medieval town, two just on its outskirts.
The periods represented vary from site to site. On Northbrook Avenue in the eastern suburb of St Giles, a Neolithic pit, undated but possibly Saxon burials, and a post-medieval ditch form an eclectic mix. Hazelnut shell from the Neolithic pit provided a radiocarbon date at the beginning of the 3rd millennium cal. BC. A case is made for the ditch (which is not intrinsically well dated) forming part of a Civil War earthwork, as it corresponds with an earthwork mapped as apparently already ancient in 1791.
At Little Minster Street in the heart of the medieval town, early Roman occupation is unexpectedly joined by another Neolithic pit, all sealed by a succession of later Roman and medieval deposits.
At Hyde Abbey Road on the northern edge of the medieval town, a long sequence of land-use begins in the late Saxon period and covers the medieval and early post-medieval periods, attesting to considerable efforts at drainage on land that was probably farmed from the Abbey and remained susceptible to flooding.
Finally at Southgate Street, there is evidence for an early Roman west-east street surface, medieval buildings and further street surfaces.
A4 soft cover, 88pp, illustrated throughout including 11 colour plates.
Occasional Paper 20: Archaeological Excavations in Hampshire
Small archaeological excavations on five sites provided varied results from a range of periods. At Scratchface Lane, Bedhampton, a single pit, rich in burnt flint has been radiocarbon dated to the middle Bronze Age. The main finding, however, was an early Iron Age occupation site consisting of two post-built roundhouse structures, a pit cluster, and linear features. No Roman features that might be associated with the projected Roman road to the north were present.
At Peronne Road, Hilsea, in Portsmouth, apart from one gully, which may be Roman, the datable features appear to represent occupation during the mid to late Bronze Age, medieval and post-medieval periods. The investigations provided new evidence for medieval occupation beyond the supposed limits of medieval Hilsea.
From St Mary’s Street in Southampton comes further evidence for occupation within the middle Saxon settlement of Hamwic, succeeded by several phases of medieval occupation, including road surfaces that may be earlier versions of St Mary Street.
At Bloswood Lane Whitchurch two small area excavations examined a collection of Late Neolithic features including a Grooved Ware pit. Most notable, however, was a hollow infilled with burnt flint-rich deposits which may indicate activities similar to those which produced ‘burnt mounds’ which are more typical of the Bronze Age.
Finally at Wickham, there were deposits relating to late Iron Age and Roman occupation, including a trackway defined by parallel gullies which appears to have originated in the late Iron Age but is precisely on the projected line of the Roman road from Chichester to Bitterne, and was still in use in the 2nd century AD. Later pits (3rd century) were dug between the gullies and thus suggest that the road had gone out of use by that time. An unusual sherd of black samian is a notable find amongst the small pottery assemblage.
A4 soft cover, 109pp, illustrated throughout including 25 colour plates.
Occasional Paper 21: Archaeological Excavations on Bronze Age, Iron Age, Roman and Medieval Sites in Reading and Wokingham, Berkshire
Archaeological excavations on three sites around the south-eastern perimeter of modern Reading have led to the discovery of unexpected evidence for several periods in the area’s past. At Ridgeway School, a late Bronze Age burnt mound provided two radiocarbon dates and was accompanied by broadly contemporary pits. Occupation continued into the early Iron Age, and was resumed in the late Iron Age or early Roman period and lasted until middle Roman times, with abandonment, in or not long after AD274, being marked by the deposition of a coin hoard which the owner was never able to recover.
At Matthews green Farm, a middle Iron Age farm represented by a roundhouse, perhaps rebuilt twice, an animal pen, and a few pits was occupied for, probably, a short period around 400BC. Its inhabitants were engaged in iron production as well as farming. In the Roman period, occupation took place on a new site to the north, but again seems to have been a modest, largely self-sufficient farm. A surprising result of radiocarbon dating was the discovery that pits which had been considered to be charcoal clamps related to the Iron Age iron production were in fact medieval.
At Croft Road in Spencers Wood, the more modest discovery of a middle Iron Age field system is nevertheless also of some interest as here, as with all three sites, the chronology is supported by a programme of radiocarbon dating.
An extensive list of the monetiform objects recovered during the excavation can be downloaded by clicking the following Link
A4 soft cover, 79pp, illustrated throughout including 20 colour plates.
Occasional Paper 22: A Bronze Age Cemetery and Field System, and Iron Age Occupation at Downton Manor Farm, Downton, Hampshire
This paper combines the results of archaeological excavations between 2010 and 2015, by Thames Valley Archaeological Services and Southern Archaeological Services, at Downton, near Milford-on-Sea, Hampshire. A combination of fieldwalking, geophysical survey and trial trench evaluation over a large area (18ha) in advance of mineral extraction had suggested that the site held only moderate archaeological interest, but excavation revealed a concentrated area of archaeological interest in the north-east corner.
The earliest features were a series of ditches with rectilinear plan, thought to represent a middle Bronze Age organized landscape. This was followed by evidence of Bronze Age burial both as ring ditches (levelled burial mounds) and urned cremation burials (although the urns in fact contained very little burnt bone).
Later occupation of Iron Age date included a ditched enclosure, roundhouses, both post-built and ring-gully type, and rare middle Iron Age cremation burial (radiocarbon dated). Other than the (highly fragmented) cremation urns themselves, finds were disappointingly scarce. The chronology of the site is, however, supported by a programme of radiocarbon dating.
A4 soft cover, 47pp, illustrated throughout including 14 colour plates.
Occasional Paper 23: Bronze Age, Roman and Early Anglo-Saxon Occupation on Land to the South of Kings Reach, Ditton Park, Slough, Berkshire
Archaeological excavation in advance of construction of Ditton Park Academy has examined a site with a long history of use, from the later Bronze Age through to the medieval period.
The prehistoric phases on the site have proved difficult to date more closely than Bronze Age to Iron Age, but there are hints that phases include Middle Bronze Age, Late Bronze Age and early-middleIron Age. The post-built roundhouses, of which as many as six were found, must represent at least three phases of building which could be later Bronze Age or earlier Iron Age.
A ditched enclosure can be given only a broad Iron Age date, but was recut in the Roman period, which also sees the creation of a second, more regular enclosure. Usually, a site occupied in the Roman period will produce considerably greater quantities of finds than an Iron Age one, but here there was a marked reduction in the amount of pottery. Either the Roman occupation was extremely short-lived, or this area was well away from the core of any settlement.
The more noteworthy results involve the early Anglo-Saxon period. Although represented by just two Sunken Featured Buildings (SFB), and a handful of other features, they produced more finds and more important information. It is the two radiocarbon dates on residues from Anglo-Saxon pottery which are particularly significant with regard to the end of Roman Britain and Anglo-Saxon settlement. The Thames Valley is considered to have been well colonized by the later 5th century. The dating here of two demonstrably Anglo-Saxon artefacts, one to the late 4th century, the other possibly as early, or not much later, are difficult to explain unless Anglo-Saxon colonization is already well underway before the end of the 4th century, still within Roman times.
A4 soft cover, 47pp, illustrated throughout including 9 colour plates.
Occasional Paper 24: Micheldever and King's Worthy, Winchester, Hampshire: Archaeological Excavations in 2013
This volume brings together the results of archaeological excavations on two sites to the north of Winchester.
The main report features Saxon, medieval and early post-medieval occupation in Micheldever, where, other than one possible Iron Age pit, the earliest features date to the early-middle Saxon period. Despite a higher density of features in the later Saxon period, no building remains were identified. There is some evidence of iron smithing and quarrying. The medieval occupation spans four phases from the 11th to the 16th century, but with very little evidence after the 14th. An early and long-lived trackway and a field/paddock possibly formed part of a manorial enclosure. A timber-framed building dates to the earliest medieval phase, with more evidence for smithing and quarrying. Nothing indicates especially high status however, and archaeologically visible activity dwindles through the medieval period.
In the 16th century a major change sees buildings and formal gardens probably related to the estate of Thomas Wriothesley, later Lord Chancellor. It has been thought that remains uncovered in the 1970s, immediately to the west, were of Wriothesley’s main hall, so it is possible that the buildings here were outhouses or barns.
A smaller site in King’s Worthy is chiefly notable for its proximity to the sites of Iron Age ‘banjo’ enclosures and a Roman villa, both Scheduled. The excavation provided new evidence for late Iron Age occupation and a small cremation cemetery. A small quantity of Roman pottery recovered from an enclosure ditch suggests it remained open into the early Roman period.
A4 soft cover, 111pp, illustrated throughout including 14 colour plates.
Occasional Paper 25: Middle Iron Age, Late Iron Age and Roman Occupation at Hatch Farm, Winnersh, Reading, Berkshire
This volume presents the results of archaeological investigations over a large area in advance of a major housing development in central Berkshire. Although, under the requirements of the development planning process, increasing attention is being paid to the archaeology of this middle part of the Thames valley, it remains less intensively and extensively explored than either areas upstream or further east.
The excavation of one large, and several small, areas within an overall site of almost 50ha has revealed the presence of middle and late Iron Age and early Roman deposits in the form of field systems and a farmstead, with five round houses and a series of enclosures. Three small square enclosures are of uncertain function and date but may also be middle Iron Age. A reasonably large pottery assemblage is supported by a series of radiocarbon dates, but other artefacts and ecofacts were surprisingly sparse. The site seems to have been occupied from the 5th century BC until the 4th century AD, although it is unclear if this was more or less continuous, or episodic, but at least the Roman phases all appear to build directly upon one another with no obvious sign of discontinuity in layout. The inhabitants do not appear to have been wealthy at any point in this lengthy occupation, but the mere survival of the site for so long runs contrary to a regional trend, which sees few Late Iron Age, much less Middle Iron Age, sites, survive beyond the early Roman period.
A4 soft cover, 77pp, illustrated throughout including 19 colour plates.
Occasional Paper 26: Archaeological Excavations on Roman, Saxon and Medieval Sites in Harwell and Longcot, Oxfordshire
This volume presents the results from three excavations in the Vale of the White Horse in Oxfordshire: two side by side on Blenheim Hill in Harwell and one in nearby Longcot.
On the larger of the Harwell sites, a series of Roman enclosures and land divisions along with pits, a corn drier and a coin hoard were identified. The site may have been first used as a work-place in the Mesolithic, but the main phases were one early Roman and three late Roman episodes, with an apparent hiatus from the 2nd to early 3rd century. A few sherds of Saxon pottery hint that the last phase continued into the 5th century. Two deposits of cremated human bone (three individuals) were undated but might belong to the early Roman period.
Just across the road, the second excavation found further later Roman enclosures but nothing of early Roman date. Four Middle Saxon inhumation burials, two of which were radiocarbon dated, were located within the area that was possibly still marked by the latest Roman enclosure. A possible Bronze Age pit points to prehistoric activity on the site.
Further west in Longot, the third site revealed a dense sequence of field boundary ditches spanning several phases in the early Roman period (2nd century AD) and early Medieval period (11th–13th centuries AD), with just a few other features (pits and post holes) of both periods. Prehistoric and later Roman activity is reflected only in residual finds. Although no direct (structural) evidence of occupation on the site was found for either period, the quantity of pottery indicates that settlement can be expected not far away. This is the first indication of Roman occupation in Longcot.
A4 soft cover, 111pp, illustrated throughout including 21 colour plates.
Occasional Paper 27: An Early to Middle Iron Age Settlement at the Former Elvian School, Reading, Berkshire
This volume presents the results from excavations of an Iron Age settlement densely used from at least the start of the 5th century BC through to perhaps the 1st century BC/AD. The early and middle phases on the site are marked by an unenclosed complex of ring gully structures, pits and postholes with little evidence of organized space except for a trackway defined by fences and gullies that was maintained through the whole use of the site and never encroached upon. Several of the ring gullies had been remodelled on three or four occasions and there is clear time depth to the occupation. The ring gullies provided radiocarbon dates commencing in the 5th/4th centuries BC into the 3rd/2nd centuries BC. The part of the site occupied by the ring gullies may have gone out of use in the 1st century BC, to be overlain by an enclosure complex that included the existing trackway which was now defined by more substantial ditches. It is not clear that these late enclosures were occupied.
A single gully was of Middle Bronze Age date and a few struck flints may be of Mesolithic, Neolithic or Bronze Age date. One pit also produced a radiocarbon date in the 8th/7th century BC suggesting that use of the site may have commenced earlier than suggested by the structural evidence. A few sherds of probable Saxon pottery point to a little activity of this period in the area.
The economic evidence recovered was partial with no bone survival, but charred plant remains indicated a typical range of wheat and barley cultivation though there was little evidence for above- or below-ground storage. A little slag suggested small scale smithying on the site.
A4 soft cover, 52pp, illustrated throughout including 16 colour plates.
Occasional Paper 28: Archaeological Excavations on Sites of Bronze Age and Iron Age Occupation in Kent, 2014-2016
The five chapters in this volume detail archaeological excavations in advance of development on sites in Maidstone, Marden, Lenham, Iwade and Wrotham, in central and north-western Kent. All five of the sites revealed middle or later Bronze Age features, chiefly pit clusters At Orchard Farm, Iwade, late Iron Age occupation and a small cremation cemetery were also present.
Each of the sites reported in this volume might be considered of only modest significance in itself, but in combination they add to what has until recently been a very patchy record of Bronze Age occupation in north-west Kent. Finds were generally not prolific, although Iwade yielded a fairly substantial pottery assemblage.
Chronologies for the sites at Maidstone and Marden are supported by radiocarbon dates.
A4 soft cover, 85pp, illustrated throughout including 32 colour plates.
Occasional Paper 29: Earlier Neolithic Pits and Late Iron Age Settlement at Littleworth Road, Benson, Oxfordshire
housing development on the northern outskirts of Benson, close to the River Thames in Oxfordshire.
The earliest finds were a cluster of four earlier Neolithic pits, two of which were radiocarbon dated to c. 3600–3500 cal BC. They contained a range of flint and pottery finds with charred hazelnut shells but no cereals, along with part of the skull of a child. The Bronze Age was represented by a single Middle Bronze Age pit and a scatter of residual pottery finds.
The main findings dated to the Late Iron Age, when ditches were dug marking enclosures and other boundaries. A rich grave was located outside the enclosures: it (and the nearest enclosure ditch) contained a pottery assemblage with an unexpectedly rich imported (Gallo-Belgic) contribution. Cut features within the enclosures were surprisingly few, suggesting that the site may have functioned as a part of the animal husbandry regime and any more intensively occupied areas were located elsewhere. Unusually, the Late Iron Age settlement did not continue in use into early Roman times. A little Saxon pottery and a Medieval trackway were also recorded.
A4 soft cover, 49pp, illustrated throughout including 19 colour plates.
Occasional Paper 30: Archaeological Excavations on two Sites in Tetbury and Twekesbury, Gloucestershire, 2016-2017
This volume details the results of archaeological excavations in advance of development on sites at the northern and southern limits of Gloucestershire.
At Bath Road, Tetbury, a small cluster of pits is probably of early Neolithic date, although the ceramic evidence is somewhat ambiguous. More securely dated is a large L-shaped ditch forming a partial enclosure, which contained Middle Bronze Age pottery and was filling in the third quarter of the 2nd millennium cal BC. A couple of pits also belong to the Middle Bronze Age.
At Bredon Road, Tewkesbury, another group of poorly dated pits is probably Iron Age and associated with the burial of the very incomplete remains of an adult human, radiocarbon dated to the 4th or 3rd century BC. However, most of the features on this site are medieval, perhaps belonging within a relatively short span in the 13th century, and consist of a small ditched enclosure set within a larger, partly open enclosure, probably on, or just beyond, the edge of contemporary settlement.
A4 soft cover, 35pp, illustrated throughout including 18 colour plates.
Occasional Paper 31: Further Burials in the Guildown Saxon Cemetery at Guildford, Surrey
A small archaeological excavation explored a new area of the well-known Saxon cemetery, west of Guildford town centre, known as the Guildown 'execution cemetery'. Over 200 burials had been excavated in the early 20th centaury, and the cemetery was already regarded as unusual, yet the application of modern techniques of osteological and isotope analysis has added new components to this intriguing site. Seven graves were exposed, containing the remains of a minimum of 10 individuals. Two phases of burial have been identified, characterized by those displaying the expected furnished early medieval inhumations, and later, non-normative graves. Artefacts and radiocarbon dating indicate an extended period of use, spanning the 6th to 11th centuries AD. The majority of inhumations were buried in supine and extended positions. The exception to this was the unusual inclusion of a semi-disarticulated secondary burial (re burial) of an adult man into a double grave with a younger adult male. Additional in expected observations included the likely prior removal of two skeletons, possibly during previous investigations in the 1920s. Osteological analysis revealed the earliest graves contained a mixed group, including an adolescent and a woman. The later phase of burial comprised solely adult men. No evidence of execution was observed. Isotopic analysis of three men from the later graves suggests that they were not locals.
A4 soft cover, 46pp, illustrated throughout including 21 colour plates.
Occasional Paper 32: Iron Age and Early Roman Occupation and a Middle Iron Age Burial at Cheriton Road Sports Ground, Folkestone, Kent
This slim volume details the results of archaeological excavation in advance of development in Folkestone, on the south coast of Kent. The excavation revealed an extensive spread of occupation deposits, with some human burial, dating from the Late Bronze Age through to early Roman times. The earliest features were a single ditch and a possible cremation burial of Late Bronze Age date. The whole of the Iron Age extending into early Roman times seems to have been well represented. The Middle Iron Age dating is supported by a radiocarbon date of 365-164 cal BC. An inhumation burial associated with a second radiocarbon date of 428-353 cal BC was an unusual discovery for this period. A small collection of struck flint includes Mesolithic and possibly upper Palaeolithic material.
The bulk of the site’s activity belongs to the late Iron Age and early Roman period with the creation of ditched field systems and enclosures. A number of pits resemble grain storage pits in profile, and the faunal remains from the site suggest that the settlement was largely self sufficient with cattle being raised into maturity whilst sheep were being consumed at an earlier age, which is a fairly typical pattern for the region. No evidence of any structures was found in the excavation area but it is possible that these were located outside of the excavation area. A modest collection of pottery suggests the site was already out of use by the end of the 1st century AD.
A4 soft cover, 51pp, illustrated throughout including 10 colour plates.
Occasional Paper 33: Two Iron Age Smelting Sites in Berkshire and North Hampshire, Archaeological Excavations on sites in Riseley and Reading
Two excavations, one in south Reading, Berkshire and a second in Riseley just over the Hampshire side of the county boundary, revealed sites predominantly of middle Iron Age date. The Riseley site was slightly more extensive, with two ring-gully structures and evidence for a small field system. Some re-use of the site also took place in early Roman times. The Reading site contained a Late Bronze Age roundhouse, Early Iron Age pit and a Roman ditch in addition to a single Middle Iron Age gully. The detailed chronology of both sites is supported by a series of radiocarbon dates.
The unifying aspect of the two sites is that in the middle Iron Age, both were involved in small-scale iron smelting using phosphate-rich (bog) iron ore. These two excavations add to a corpus of similar sites now recorded for an area broadly south and south-east of Reading encompassing parts of north Hampshire and north-west Surrey. The corpus is well documented with radiocarbon-based chronology and detailed metallurgical analysis of the slag recovered.
A final short chapter of the volume assesses the significance of these data in the wider context of the Origins, development and subsequent demise of an iron production 'industry' in this area in the Iron Age.
A4 soft cover, 49pp, illustrated throughout including 23 colour plates.
Occasional Paper 34: Iron Age and Saxon Occupation in Long Crendon, Buckinghamshire
The results of two archaeological excavations carried out in advance of development in Long Crendon in Buckinghamshire are reported in this volume. Both of the sites, not far apart on the eastern and south-eastern fringes of Long Crendon, revealed Middle and Late Iron Age occupation evidence, in the form of field boundaries, large and small pits, and including one post-built roundhouse and several four-post structures of the type normally considered to be granaries. At Madge’s Farm, a large volume of medium/small pits related to quarrying and part of a ridge and furrow field system were also uncovered. Finds included two Iron Age slingshots, which may take on added signifiance in the light of recent confirmation of the presence of a multi-vallate hillfort at the north of the modern village. On the other site, at Wainwrights, a crouched child burial is tentatively dated to the Iron Age. This site also provided evidence for early to middle Anglo-Saxon occupation. The Iron Age and Saxon chronologies are supported by radiocarbon dating.
A4 soft cover, 77pp, illustrated throughout including 22 colour plates.
Occasional Paper 35: Later Neolithic Pits, a Bronze Age ring ditch and early Anglo-Saxon buildings at Braywick Park, Maidenhead, Berkshire
An open excavation revealed deposits that show a long but discontinuous use of the site from the later Neolithic through to the early Saxon period. Radiocarbon dates place a small cluster of pits containing Peterborough Ware pottery at the very start of the 3rd millennium BC. These are considered to represent rarely encountered occupation deposits of this period. More than a millennium later the site was used to construct one, possibly two ring ditches likely to represent now levelled Early Bronze Age burial mounds, though no burial deposits were revealed. The frequent presence of ring ditches on the gravel terraces of the Thames shows how densely used the valley was in the earlier part of the Bronze Age, despite meagre evidence for contemporary occupation sites. Finally, after another two millennia, the site was used for early Saxon occupation, in the form of six sunken-featured buildings and other features, which radiocarbon dating helped to show, were not all contemporary.
A4 soft cover, 40pp, illustrated throughout including 15 colour plates.
Occasional Paper 36: Middle bronze Age to Middle Iron Age occupation at The Paddocks, Nutbourne, Chichester, West Sussex
The archaeological excavation revealed two clusters of features, one consisting mostly of pits (or tree-throws) and one mostly of post-holes, which appear to form at least five roundhouses. Overall there is clearly occupation on the site, probably sporadically, from the Middle Bronze Age to the Middle Iron Age. Four radiocarbon dates support the ceramic chronology. Southern English Later Bronze Age settlement displays a wide range of occupation site form. Sometimes this comprises just single roundhouses, as at Gosport or Westhampnett; sites with a greater or lesser degree of enclosure as at North Bersted or Ford Airfield, Yapton; large enclosures, ringworks or proto-hillforts; and burnt mounds as at Patchling. Another form is that of unenclosed, dense groups of pits and post-holes, lacking any obvious organized layout, as at Selsey, and further afield at Ringwood, Hampshire, Knights Farm, Berkshire and Roundhouse Farm, Wiltshire. It is to this latter group that the site at The Paddocks belongs.
A4 soft cover, 31pp, illustrated throughout including 13 colour plates.
Occasional Paper 37: Further Later Bronze Age landscape, and an Urnfield at Springfield Quarry, Beaconsfield, Buckinghamshire
This volume reports on further archaeological work on the extensions to Springfield Quarry, where excavations previously published in TVAS Monograph 14, have uncovered Middle Bronze Age and Late Bronze Age/Early Iron Age landscape features. The latest work extends our knowledge of the use of this landscape, seeing the beginnings of land division, and then an expansion of that managed landscape, including two large enclosures. More significantly, it has helped refine the chronology (making much more sense of the site’s development), and added a completely new element in the form of an urnfield. The chronology of the site is supported by an extensive pottery assemblage and five radiocarbon dates. Other finds were very few and environmental remains limited.
A4 soft cover, 45pp, illustrated throughout including 13 colour plates.
Occasional Paper 38: Medieval Occupation at Slough Cemetery and Arbour Vale School, Stoke Road and Whitby Road, Slough
This paper details the findings of two archaeological excavations undertaken at locations on the northern fringes of Slough, Berkshire (though one of the sites was just across into Buckinghamshire), as well as features from an evaluation.
On a site destined to become an extension to Slough cemetery, an area defined within a substantial boundary ditch seems to have been used to quarry brickearth in the 12th or 13th-century, the quarries then filled with domestic waste. Although finds included substantial building materials such as faced flint nodules and tile, no structural remains were present below-ground. There was evidence for a short-lived burst of blacksmithing. Pottery came from a variety of sources, suggestive of at least some wealth wherever the accompanying houses may have been.
At Arbour Vale School, just a little further south, very similar quarrying appears to date perhaps a century earlier. Here, again, there was no real evidence for a habitation other than limited disposal of domestic waste, and finds were every sparse, suggesting that this site is more likely to represent a single farm.
At Whitby Road in Slough Trading Estate, an area with little recorded archaeology, further early medieval features were revealed below a buried soil during an evaluation. The subsequent development groundworks did not expose the archaeological levels in this location and the significance of these deposits will have to await a future opportunity for study.
A4 soft cover, 53pp, illustrated throughout including 20 colour plates.
Occasional Paper 39: Middle Bronze Age to Iron Age Occupation and a Roman Field System at Cerney Wick Farm, Cerney Wick, Gloucestershire
Excavations within the Cerney Wick Farm quarry complex revealed a landscape occupied from the Middle Bronze Age through to the Post-Medieval period. The chronology of the occupation episodes is supported by radiocarbon dating. The earliest feature was a small ring ditch, dated to 1695-1604 cal BC. A small later Bronze Age settlement comprised four post-built roundhouses, pits and postholes. There is a suggestion of Later Bronze Age-Early Iron Age activity with a gully and possibly a contemporary post-built roundhouse.
In the Middle Iron Age a small farmstead was established, comprising a roundhouse and land divisions. This was replaced by a new roundhouse set within an enclosure in the Middle to Later Iron Age.
Roman occupation is sparse with a suggestion of a field system and a few boundary ditches. In the Post-Medieval period the area was intensively utilized with a trackway and water meadow system. The agricultural regime then changed with a late version of ridge and furrow overlying the water meadows.
A4 soft cover, 56pp, illustrated throughout including 14 colour plates.
Occasional Paper 40: Iron Age and Roman Occupation in the Hampshire Basin: Archaeological Investigations at Stubbington, Eastleigh and Netley, 2017-2019
This volume presents results of investigations on three sites in an area close to the south coast in Hampshire, which has previously received relatively little archaeological investigation.
The largest of these investigations was on the line of Stubbington Bypass, where areas totalling just over 1ha were opened. Three of these areas revealed a moderate density of archaeological features, including ditches and gullies forming boundaries, rubbish pits, postholes and water holes belonging to the early Roman period. They testified to a rural occupation site and field system, that lasted for a few centuries before abandonment in the late 2nd century AD.
Two small areas excavated at Hatch Farm, Eastleigh, revealed deposits of mainly Iron Age date. A single short length of gully and residual pottery dated from the Bronze Age. The earlier part of the Iron Age was represented by a ditch which contained a small amount of slag from a smithing furnace. Subsequent Iron Age activity, perhaps more than two centuries later, is likely to represent part of an enclosed occupation site.
At Grange Road, Netley, a small open area excavation revealed part of a Middle Iron Age occupation site represented by pits and postholes with a radiocarbon date of 404-228 cal BC.
A4 soft cover, 66pp, illustrated throughout including 25 colour plates.
Occasional Paper 41: A Sub-Roman Cemetery at Whithill Quarry Extension, Lillington, Sherborne, Dorset
This paper details the findings of a small excavation undertaken by TVAS South West in advance of quarrying, which uncovered a cemetery of some twenty inhumation burials, two of which were radiocarbon dated to the late 6th or 7th century AD. It is likely that other burials would have been located in an area already previously quarried away to the south and/or east, but the limits of the cemetery to the north and west were clearly established, albeit unmarked. The buried population included seven adult females, six adult males and seven children, all buried without grave goods (one possible exception being a finger ring) but in a tidily organized cemetery layout. Isotope analysis indicated that they grew up and lived in the region of the cemetery
A4 soft cover, 49pp, illustrated throughout.
Occasional Paper 42: A Middle Iron Age Enclosure and a Second World War Heavy Anti-Aircraft Battery at Pirton Fields, Churchdown, near Gloucester, Gloucestershire
Archaeological excavation on the outskirts of Gloucester revealed evidence of episodic use of the site, from the later Bronze Age through to the 20th century. Bronze Age pits and linear features probably represent traces of occupation and a field system. This developed in the Iron Age with the inclusion of a ring gully house site and in turn was enhanced by construction of a discrete enclosure, with evidence suggesting that the subsistence economy was predominantly pastoral. Three radiocarbon dates support the Iron Age chronology. The settlement is considered to have thrived in the 5th Century BC but had gone out of use before the onset of the Late Iron Age.
The site was farmed in Roman times as a few traces of a field system were revealed, and again during the Medieval or Post-Medieval periods as evidenced by widespread ridge and furrow. The final phase of use comprised the construction and use of a Second World War anti-aircraft battery, remains of which were extant at ground level.
A4 soft cover, 49pp, illustrated throughout including 14 colour plates.
Occasional Paper 43: A Middle Bronze Age Ring Ditch and Roman Settlement Enclosures at Netherhouse Copse, Hitches Lane, Fleet, Hampshire
This volume presents results of archaeological investigations on one large and several smaller areas within a site in an area close to the north-eastern border of Hampshire, which until recently had received relatively little archaeological investigation. Use of the site began in the Middle Bronze Age with the digging of ditches and a ring ditch. The ring ditch (barrow) was only 4m across and was associated with an urned cremation burial which returned a Middle Bronze Age radiocarbon date of 1214-1012 cal BC. No dated artefacts were recovered from the ring ditch. Area F revealed a pair of linear features aligned at right angles to each other, of Middle to Late Bronze Age date, containing pottery and returning two radiocarbon dates of 1256-1156 cal BC and 1111-970 cal BC. They are considered to be elements of a Bronze Age field system, but the location of any contemporary settlement remains unknown. There was then a lengthy gap until Roman use of the site which formed an agricultural settlement, as an initial enclosure which developed in at least five phases, three early Roman and two late, apparently with a break in between. The settlement is considered to have been of modest status in all phases, with no conspicuous examples of material wealth, and certainly no elaborate architecture, but the occupants were not necessarily impoverished and certainly disposed of a substantial pottery assemblage. On the basis of admittedly tentative evidence, the economy of the site is considered to have been predominantly pastoral. The results are related to recent excavations on a nearby site to the north.
A4 soft cover, 63pp, illustrated throughout including 12 colour plates.
Occasional Paper 44: Excavation of Neolithic Pits, Late Bronze Age Occupation, Late Iron Age into Roman Field System and Saxon Pits at Roke Manor Farm, Shootash, Romsey, Hampshire
This volume presents the results of archaeological investigations in advance of sand and gravel extraction. The first phases of excavation revealed an extensive field system including a possible droveway, dated to the Late Iron Age-Early Roman period, into which two enclosures were incorporated. The smaller enclosure in the south-eastern quadrant was possibly contemporary with the field system but only scant dating evidence was recovered. The larger enclosure at the western edge of the excavation was securely dated to the Early Roman period. The latter was only partially uncovered by the fieldwork and it is not clear if this was an occupation site or was simply another component of the organised landscape. The fourth phase of excavation revealed the eastwards continuation of the Late Iron Age-Early Roman field system and droveway, but added unexpected new components in the form of Late Neolithic pits, a dense cluster of Late Bronze Age occupation features, and two Anglo-Saxon pits. The chronology is supported by radiocarbon dates. The final phases of extraction extended this range of features with several discrete clusters of unenclosed and only very loosely organized Late Bronze Age settlement. A substantial pottery assemblage was recovered (though very few other finds) and the chronology is again supported by radiocarbon dates centred on the 9th and 10th centuries cal BC. Shallow ditches and gullies, although undated in this area, also appear to extend the Late Iron Age or Early Roman landscape seen to the west. The most notable feature on the site is a Late Bronze Age pit which contained 22kg of pottery from at least 18 vessels, radiocarbon dated to 1125–969 cal BC. The Saxon pits, one of which dated to AD 659–729 contained iron smelting slag but no furnace was present.
A4 soft cover, 79pp, illustrated throughout including 21 colour plates.
Monograph 1: Charnham Lane, Hungerford, Berkshire
The first volume in the series details the evidence of a long, if intermittent human exploitation of this floodplain landscape.
Although a few Upper Palaeolithic/Early Mesolithic flints were found, the earliest securely dated features were later Mesolithic fire pits, which contained charred plant remains, suggesting they were used for cooking. Other concentrations of late Mesolithic flintwork came from surface collection, both on the floodplain and on a gravel ‘island’ rising above it.
Early Bronze Age finds include three components: a pit circle, an adjacent occupation area, and detailed environmental evidence derived from a pollen sequence indicating, for example, that woodland clearance did not begin until the early Bronze Age.
There is then a lengthy gap in the use of the area until a small settlement was created in Saxon times. Most of the structures and deposits on the site, however, were medieval. A bi-focal settlement seems to be indicated, most probably neighbouring farms, created in the 11th-12th centuries and lasting until an abandonment probably in the 14th century. Although finds of this period were not abundant, environmental evidence allows a reconstruction of a mixed farming economy.
A4 soft cover, 87pp, illustrated throughout
Monograph 2: Prehistoric, Roman and Saxon Sites in Eastern Berkshire
Five excavations in eastern Berkshire are described in this report. At Horton, investigation of penannular cropmarks revealed a complex Neolithic monument with clearly structured deposition of numerous artefacts, overlain by a series of late Iron Age and Roman features. Work on a pipeline at Barkham Square turned up a late Bronze Age burnt mound, a rarity for southern England.Very ephemeral traces at Fairclough Farm, Bracknell turned out to be remains of a middle Iron Age settlement.
At Bath Road, Slough, late Iron Age and Roman field systems and other features were very reminiscent of the finds of these periods from Horton. Finally, multi-period occupation at Waylands Nursey, Wraysbury, ranged from the late Bronze Age through the Roman period and into the early Saxon. All of these sites, despite their differences, attest in their own way to the intensive exploitation of this small part of the Thames Valley, over a long period.
A4 soft cover, 158pp, illustrated throughout
Monograph 3: Excavations at Cippenham, Slough, Berkshire
Volume 3 explores a series of multi-period sites that cover an extensive landscape to the south of Slough, tracing development from the Neolithic to the Medieval period. A major housing development on the 'Cippenham Sector' at Slough provided opportunities for archaeological excavations on several sites. The remains uncovered span some 6000 years from the early Neolithic to the Post-medieval period and reveal the changing face of this Thames Valley landscape under almost constant human influence throughout this time.
Earlier Neolithic evidence seems to relate mainly to domestic occupation, although the patterns of deposition suggest a ritual component. Later Neolithic activity is less abundant and less easily characterized but may also include ritual aspects. This theme continues into the Bronze Age, with a ring ditch and numerous cremation burials, both in a cemetery and also spread across the landscape. There is some evidence for occupation in the Middle Bronze Age, but more substantial occupation remains appear in the Later Bronze Age.
From the Middle Iron Age until the middle Roman period, the area appears to have been more or less continuously farmed, with remarkable continuity through this span, when it is more usual to expect marked breaks in the rural landholding pattern. The landscape in this period was dominated by small individual farms. An apparent abandonment in the 3rd century AD led to a remodelling and a lessening of the intensity of all kinds of activity, eventually leading to a total lack of evidence from the 4th century into the Saxon period. By medieval times, occupation was concentrated in one small part of the area investigated. It is likely that by this time most of the land was included in Cippenham
A4 soft cover, 158pp, illustrated throughout including 5 colour and 5 black and white plates
Monograph 4: Bronze Age, Roman and Saxon sites on Shrubsoles Hill, Sheppey and at Wises Lane, Borden, Kent
Two excavations between 1999 and 2001 by TVAS shed light on the early development of the landscape on either side of the Swale in north Kent. On Shrubsloes Hill on the Isle of Sheppey, a Bronze Age landscape included a ring ditch (and presumably barrow), with associated cremation graves, a single linear ditch, and later a ditched enclosure and a flat cremation cemetery. The barrow was re-used when the site was occupied in the Saxon period.
At Borden, near Sittingbourne, three phases of development of an agricultural landscape can all be dated in the 1st century AD, when a droveway was flanked by changing patterns of field systems. This site also held a contemporary cremation cemetery. The site is of interest as it shows essential continuity of landholding and farming practice through the years either side of the Roman conquest.
A4 soft cover, 90pp, illustrated throughout including 8 colour plates
Monograph 5: The Archaeology of the Aylesbury-Chalgrove gas pipeline and the Orchard, Walton Road, Aylesbury
Investigations along the route of a new gas pipeline produced evidence of a variety of types of site spanning periods from the Bronze Age to the Saxon era. These included, in Buckinghamshire, an Iron Age site at Chilton Grove and a late Roman site at Peppershill Farm, and in Oxfordshire, a late Bronze Age site at Latchford, Iron Age and Saxon settlement at Rycote, and Iron Age and Roman sites at both Corrnwell Copse and Warpsgrove.
At Walton Road in Aylesbury in the Middle Bronze Age at least four roundhouses occupied the site. A middle Saxon settlement consisted of at least eight post-built hall houses, one building using a foundation trench construction, and one sunken featured building (or grubenhaus).
A4 soft cover, 90pp, illustrated throughout including 8 colour plates
Monograph 6: Iron Age and Roman settlement and landscape at Totterdown Lane, Horcott near Fairford, Gloucestershire
This part of the Upper Thames Valley is rapidly becoming one of the best-mapped areas of Roman Britain. Excavations at two quarry sites in Gloucestershire revealed a dynamic pattern of land-use and settlement extending from the middle Iron Age through the entire Roman period and into the early post-Roman era. In the middle Iron Age, the site was clearly a settlement area with two broadly contemporary clusters of round houses, metalworking activity and associated fields.
The Roman evidence consisted mainly of ditched land divisions spanning the entire four centuries, and although there was no direct evidence for any settlement, there must have been one nearby. The remarkable density of features in this landscape shows an almost obsessive emphasis on the redefinition of boundaries, which contrasts with other recent large scale investigations in the area where a much more open landscape has often been revealed.
A4 soft cover, 108pp, illustrated throughout including 9 colour plates
Monograph 7: Reading and Windsor: Old and New; Excavations 1995–2002
This volume presents the results of seven small excavations in the hearts of the modern towns of Reading, Old Windsor and New Windsor. Surprisingly little work has previously been published from these towns, other than the extensive work at Reading Abbey. We examine two sites on Friar Street in Reading and one on Castle Street, highlighting the medieval development of the town.In Windsor, evidence comes from three sites in the shadow of the great Norman Castle, one on High Street and two on Thames Street, exploring the changing medieval topography. From Old Windsor, we report on a post-medieval house at The Manor.
A final section explores the major finds (pottery and animal bone) and gives an overview of archaeological evidence for several centuries of town life by the Thames in Berkshire.
A4 soft cover, 211pp, illustrated throughout including 6 colour plates
Monograph 8: Excavations in Medieval Abingdon and Drayton, Oxfordshire
Two excavations on Ock Street, on the western side of Abingdon in Oxfordshire reveal fascinating details of medieval and early post-medieval tanning, leather working and horn processing, which apparently began on the north side of the street (75 Ock Street) in the 13th or 14th century and moved to the south side (on the site of the later Morlands Brewery) by the late 14th or early 15th century. These noxiously anti-social activities would have been located on the fringes of the town or even slightly outside it, but it appears that the proprietors made a good living from the business, as both sites were able to afford a certain amount of luxury, including imported pottery, while their workers appear to have subsisted on a diet that was more liquid than solid, presumably mainly beer (appropriate on a site that was later a brewery).
Beyond Abingdon itself, this volume also examines a small area excavation at Abingdon Road in nearby Drayton, where a medieval field system of paddocks and droveways was successively altered from the 11th to the 14th century before being abandoned. This site provides a marked contrast to the sequence of continuous urban development seen in the town itself.
A4 soft cover, 121pp, illustrated throughout including 20 colour plates
Monograph 9: Archaeological Investigations in the Silchester Hinterland
Silchester is one of the best-known and best-preserved Roman towns in Britain. A series of archaeological investigations conducted as part of the planning process has added to our knowledge of how the landscape around the site of the Roman town was used and developed.
None of the archaeological sites reported here is remarkable by itself, nor are there abundant finds, nor any spectacular individual find to record, but the steady accumulation of evidence from many such small sites can transform the way entire landscapes are perceived. This has been facilitated by the consistent application of planning guidance to ensure archaeological sites are recorded in advance of development, and planning policy is now a crucial tool in archaeological research.
The investigations reported in this volume include: two fieldwalking surveys, of the Loddon valley and the area immediately around Silchester itself; excavations including an Iron Age iron smelting site at Arborfield a Roman cremation cemetery and medieval building at Mortimer; a medieval oven also at Mortimer; late Iron Age to Roman enclosure at Little London Road, Silchester; results from a watching brief along a pipe-line around the southe of the study area, with important finds from Latchmere Green and elsewhere; and finally an evaluation which produced the first evidence for Late Bronze Age/Ealry Iron Age exploitation of the Silchester area.
These sites can be better appreciated in conjunction with work reported in TVAS Monograph 13, which takes us north to Reading; and Monograph 12, which explores an area towards Thatcham and Newbury. These volumes taken together provide a long-term view of a wide tract of landscape within a day's journey of the Roman town.
A4 soft cover, 164pp, illustrated throughout including 9 colour plates
Monograph 10: Archaeological Investigations in Wallingford, Oxfordshire, 1992-2010
The role of the planning system in archaeological research Wallingford, on the River Thames in south Oxfordshire, is one of the country's best-preserved medieval towns, with origins as a late Saxon burh. It retains its medieval street plan to a remarkable degree, and substantial remains of the Saxon defences and Norman Castle survive.
Yet there is much still to learn about this historic town. Numerous small archaeological investigations initiated as a result of planning legislation are showing how even apparently disconnected pieces of work can add important evidence on the layout and development of the town. This volume in the TVAS Monograph Series brings together the results from almost two decades of investigation at more than a dozen small sites, none of which by itself is especially remarkable, but which produce new insights when combined. They also demonstrate how the requirements of the town planning process can effectively direct research, and amount to a local success story. These results should be viewed as complementary to the research-driven investigations of the academic and community-led Burh to Borough Project currently running in the town.
A4 soft cover, 121pp, illustrated throughout including 15 colour plates
Monograph 11: Archaeological Investigations in Surrey, 1997-2009
This volume reports the results of archaeological investigations in advance of development at eight sites in Surrey; in Merstham, Burgh Heath and Staines, two in Egham and three in Guildford. At Battlebridge Lane in Merstham, we find a late Iron Age to early Roman settlement enclosure, along with some prehistoric and Saxon evidence. At Chapel Way, Burgh Heath, provides a probably Iron Age ring gully, along with Roman and medieval features. A very large area examined at Manor Park, Guildford, revealed evidence for intermittent occupation spanning the Bronze Age, Iron Age and Roman periods and medieval settlement near the moated manor house. Moor Lane Staines offers Saxon and medieval occupation.
Samples of Saxon pottery have been thin-sectioned and chemically analysed, and radiocarbon dated as a baseline for future work. Two sites on the High Street in Egham produced limited evidence for prehistoric activity but more significant medieval remains including a pottery kiln. Similarly, two sites on the High Street in Guildford yielded 12th and 13th-century occupation evidence, in both cases followed by a blank period before 17th century re-occupation, with interesting insights into the diet of that period.
A4 soft cover, 212pp, illustrated throughout including 21 colour plates
Monograph 12: Archaeological Investigations along the line of Ermin Street in West Berkshire, 1992-2008
Thatcham has seen sporadic, small-scale archaeological investigations since the early years of the 20th century. Recent work, reported in this volume, has added significantly to our understanding of the early development of settlement here. This monograph presents the results of small excavations at Turnpike School, at several locations on Bath Road, and at Church Gate, and summarises results of smaller watching briefs and evaluation trenching exercises.
Among the prehistoric finds at the former Turnpike School, Newbury, there is rare evidence for late Neolithic occupation, including the skull of an aurochs, the huge ancestor of modern cattle. A late Bronze Age burnt mound shows occupation in that period too. On Bath Road, several minor investigations have confirmed the presence (in places) of the Roman road from Silchester to Cirencester, and showed occupation from the 2nd century AD to the 4th, stretching along the road for at least a kilometre. Similar evidence is also explored on the far side of Newbury, at Wickham House.
Early to Middle Saxon pottery has also been recovered, although this provides only ambiguous evidence for occupation at this time. Finally, the site at Church Gate shows medieval evidence of land boundary ditches from the 12th and 13th centuries.
A4 soft cover, 77pp, illustrated throughout including 11 colour plates
Monograph 13: Archaeological Investigations to the south of Reading, 2002-2008
A series of archaeological investigations conducted as part of the planning process has added to our knowledge of Roman settlement and landscape exploitation in an area south of modern Reading, Berkshire. None of the archaeological sites reported here are remarkable in themselves, nor are there abundant finds, nor any spectacular individual objects to record, but the steady accumulation of evidence from many such small sites can transform the way such areas are perceived. These sites, in particular, which all lie less than a day's journey from Silchester, provide a valuable contribution to an understanding of the nature and development of the hinterland of the Iron Age and Roman town.
The five sites reported in this volume include: a Roman occupation site and landscape management at Three Mile Cross; a very similar late Iron Age/early Roman settlement and landscape in south Reading, and at two smaller sites in Shinfield; while a final short paper reports on a Bronze Age pit and Iron Age 'currency bar' hoard from south Reading.
A4 soft cover, 61pp, illustrated throughout including 10 colour plates
Monograph 14: Settlement and Landscape Archaeology in the Middle Thames Valley: Slough and Environs
This volume presents the results of archaeological excavations on five sites in and around Slough, all undertaken under the provisions of town planning legislation. On two sites to the west of Slough at Cippenham, evidence was uncovered of sporadic land use from the Neolithic period onwards, which complements the results of earlier work in this area (see TVAS Monograph 3). Medieval occupation in this area seems to have been abandoned unusually early (in the 12th or early 13th century) perhaps as a result of emparkment for a known 13th-century deer park.
North-east of Slough, sites at Wexham (one in Berkshire, the other just across the county border in Buckinghamshire), again provide evidence for multiple periods of use, including Iron Age and Saxon settlement at Wexham Road, and Bronze Age and most notably extensive Roman settlement at All Souls Farm quarry. Finally, also in Buckinghamshire, Bronze Age settlement was revealed at Beaconsfield, by one of the first large area excavations in this part of the county. The results from all of the sites are backed by a programme of radiocarbon dating.
A4 soft cover, 203pp, illustrated throughout including 28 colour plates
Monograph 15: Bronze Age and Roman settlement, with Neolithic and Saxon burials, at Itchen Farm, Winchester, Hampshire
Excavations just south of Winchester uncovered evidence for a long sequence of use of the site. A number of pits and a single child's burial are radiocarbon dated to the early Neolithic period. The child burial is one of a very small number of such burials known from that era. During the Bronze Age, a post-built roundhouse occupied the site.
The main focus of the evidence derives from a series of ditched enclosures defined, re-modelled, and re-defined between the late Iron Age and late Roman periods. This sequence seems unlikely to have started much before the Claudian conquest, and the site was abandoned by around the middle of the 4th century, the latest features probably representing deliberate dismantling and clearance of the occupation. There are neither structural remains nor, until the end of the period, pits for storage or refuse, but finds are present in such quantity in the ditches that the site must have been occupied at least in the early and late phases; there is a marked decrease in finds in the middle of the Roman period. This site produced important evidence for the economy of the Roman settlement, which included textile production. A single grave seems to be the latest Roman feature on the site.
Finally, two graves contained Roman finds but are firmly dated by radiocarbon to early Saxon times, probably contemporary within the early 7th century. No other Saxon material was recovered from anywhere on the site and it is unlikely that there is any possibility of continuity over the centuries between the last Roman use and these interments.
A4 soft cover, 76pp, illustrated throughout including 13 colour plates
Monograph 16: Iron Age Iron Production Sites in Berkshire
The archaeological record for the Iron Age has been surprisingly short on iron - use of objects made of iron is rather limited, and there are remarkably few known production sites. Recent excavations in Berkshire, backed by a programme of radiocarbon dating, have begun to change that. At Sindlesham, a buried dump of slag consisted of what seems to be the largest quantity of Iron Age iron slag so far recorded in the country, associated with a series of simple pit furnaces for smelting, charcoal clamps and ore roasting pits, and provided a series of radiocarbon dates spanning the early and middle Iron Age, with evidence of unexpected re-use of the site in the Saxon period.
At Three Mile Cross, near Reading, iron production covering a similar date range was on a much smaller scale; coincidentally also with Saxon re-use. A third small site at Finchampstead also produced a single middle Iron Age furnace used for iron smelting. Analysis of the slags reveals that the raw material source was probably bog ore, low grade ore but widely available, so that the locations of production sites seem to have been more dependent on a fuel source (wood for charcoal) than on the ores themselves.
A4 soft cover, 118pp, illustrated throughout including 27 colour plates
Monograph 17: The Oxford Henge and Late Saxon Massacre; with Medieval and Later Occupation at St John's College, Oxford
Excavations at St John’s College in the heart of Oxford have dramatically altered our view of the prehistoric landscape, provided striking evidence of a massacre dating to around AD 1000, and shed light on the later occupation of the site: a suburb in the medieval period and later a farm.
The earliest feature was a massive ditch interpreted as part of a henge. Its diameter of just over 150m places it in the monumental class, of which only around 20 are known in Britain. These large henges are often the focus of a wider ritual landscape. The chronology of the henge can be traced from its construction at the end of the late Neolithic, up to the time when it disappeared as a major feature in the landscape in early medieval times.
Of particular significance is the discovery of at least 35 human skeletons, tumbled together into the depression left by the henge ditch. All were adult males, except two adolescents, all had met a violent death, many having been mutilated besides, and some partially burned. The evidence points towards these men being Danish victims of King Aethelred’s decree ordering their extermination in AD1002.
A4 soft cover, 295pp, illustrated throughout including 170 colour plates
Monograph 18: Neolithic, Roman and Saxon Settlement at Arlington Way, Thetford, Norfolk
This volume presents the results of archaeological excavations at Arlington Way, Thetford, which revealed a complex landscape, used and occupied over a considerable time during the Roman and Saxon periods. The findings provide an extension of the wider topography of the Roman and Saxon settlement previously revealed to the south at Melford Meadows where they occupied a terrace ridge above the flood plain of the river Thet.
The Roman element of the site comprised both post-built and beam-slot structures together with ditched divisions of the landscape. This is considered to be a low status farmstead which was occupied from the late 1st century until the end of the 4th century. The early Saxon occupation began in the 5th century and appears to have continued until the late 6th or 7th century. The main focus of the occupation at this time appears to have been to the south of the Roman site at Melford Meadows, and only a low density of features of this period was recorded at the Arlington Way site.
A4 soft cover, 59pp, illustrated throughout including 8 colour plates
Monograph 19: Bronze Age, Iron Age and Roman Landscapes of the Coastal Plain, and a Late Iron Age Warrior Burial at North Bersted, West Sussex
This volume details the open area excavation that took place across nine separate areas at North Bersted. The fieldwork revealed artefacts and features spanning the Upper Palaeolithic through to the Defence of Britain in the mid-1940s, although the principal periods represented were of later Bronze Age, Iron Age and Roman date. A smaller volume of Neolithic and medieval deposits were encountered.
The earlier periods were represented by discrete occupation zones - isolated pits, roundhouses, burnt mounds, isolated burials and some enclosure but with little evidence for the development of an enclosed landscape of field systems. This changed with the onset of the Middle Iron Age and continuing into the Roman period when most of the excavated areas (and beyond) had been enclosed with a complex of field boundaries and enclosures with further development through time.
Study of the settlement of this area was enhanced by a radiocarbon-dated palynological analysis of peat and alluvium deposits that infilled the valley of a small stream. Perhaps the most notable finding of the excavation was the grave of a late Iron Age warrior prince or priest who may have been raised in southern Europe, may have fought with the Roman army, and was buried with sword, scabbard, spear, shield, other grave goods including most remarkably, elaborate ceremonial headwear.
A4 soft cover, 211pp, illustrated throughout including 26 colour plates
Monograph 20: Archaeological Excavations at Roundhouse Farm, Marston Meysey, Wiltshire
This report documents a large area excavation covering some 25ha of gravel terrace in the Upper Thames Valley of north Wiltshire. The excavations have revealed a wide range of evidence for human activity with occupation sites, funerary sites, ceremonial sites and organised landscapes dating from the later Neolithic through to mid Roman times and again from the medieval period to the present.
Deposits of earlier prehistoric periods are not prolific but are represented by isolated pits, and burial but including a post-circle ceremonial monument. The later Bronze Age is better represented, with extensive areas of unenclosed settlement with post-built roundhouses and other structures present. The archaeological record intensified and diversified with the onset of the Iron Age, with several foci of occupation accompanied by small and large enclosures. The intensity and nature of landuse regressed after the middle Iron Age, due in part, perhaps, to the impact of a rising water table. The land was still demonstrably used with the reuse of several Iron Age boundaries and the creation of new fields and boundaries in Latest Iron Age/early Roman times but now without the presence of occupation areas.
Maintenance or use of the landscape appears to have ceased before the end of the Roman period though there is some evidence to suggest some originally Iron Age boundaries continued to exist to be incorporated into a small medieval agricultural enclosure. Subsequent use of the site after the medieval period was for large rectilinear enclosed fields, subject to change, with only a proportion of the boundaries recorded on early maps. The field patterns were extensively disrupted with construction of the Thames and Severn Canal in 1787.
A4 soft cover, 125pp, illustrated throughout including 40 colour plates
Monograph 21: An Iron Age Round House and Roman Villa at Chilton Fields, Oxfordshire
This report documents an area excavation covering some 2ha which was undertaken on the lower chalk plain north of the Berkshire Downs, now in south Oxfordshire. The excavations have revealed the full ground plan of a modest Roman villa along with a significant proportion of surrounding landscape features. Use of the site for a villa complex was preceded by a small amount of Bronze Age pit digging followed by a Middle Iron Age round house dating from 382–204 Cal BC, coincidentally located beneath the later villa. Four burials are also attributed to this Iron Age phase of use. After a clear break in the sequence of occupation, a stone-footed building was constructed in the later 2nd century AD and was subsequently modified and extended including construction of a veranda, into the 4th century AD. Ancillary structures include a well, a bathhouse, corn driers, and various other post-built structures as well as paddocks and enclosures beyond.
The building had gone out of use by the end of the 4th century AD but occupation may have continued with little or no break into Saxon times. No artefacts certainly of early Saxon date were recovered but two structures were typical of sunken floored buildings and pottery recovered from them included the latest 4th century types. The site was abandoned and forgotten from early in the Saxon period, presumably reverting back to agricultural use. The final activity on the site took place in the early post-medieval period with the digging of a small number of pits and the construction of a metalled trackway.
A4 soft cover, 104pp, illustrated throughout including 31 colour plates
Monograph 22: Roman Occupation at Chapel Farm, Blunsden, Swindon, Wiltshire (Lower Widhill Farm)
Archaeological excavations just north of Swindon in Wiltshire over several years uncovered an almost continuous landscape of around 7ha, occupied mainly in the 1st to 3rd centuries AD. The results of work by both Oxford Archaeology and Thames Valley Archaeological Services are presented in this volume. The earliest features were scattered pits of possible Bronze Age date but occupation begins in the late Iron Age (early 1st century AD), then shifts north-east and intensifies in the late 1st century AD and into the 2nd. Occupation centred on a large empty enclosed space, around which smaller enclosures were arranged, some of which may have been stock pens, while others were occupied, with relatively minor modifications over time. Finds described include substantial groups of pottery and metalwork, but only smaller assemblages of other materials.
The entire enclosure complex seems to have fallen out of use in the 4th century and maybe before, with late Roman finds very scarce, reinforcing the view that few Roman rural sites endured throughout the period. What is interpreted as Saxon occupation is represented by a group of three post-built houses, and a sunken-featured building, but although Saxon pottery was recovered from several features, dating evidence for the buildings themselves was scant and they are phased largely on the basis of form.
A4 soft cover, 139pp, illustrated throughout including 24 colour plates
Monograph 23: Archaeological excavations at Latton Quarry, Wiltshire
This report documents the archaeological examination of a large (18ha) parcel of land which was formerly a Scheduled Monument, and lies adjacent to a large cropmark enclosure complex. The fieldwork investigated a wide range of deposits, with early Neolithic, middle Bronze Age, early and middle Iron Age and early Anglo-Saxon occupation being revealed, along with Iron Age, Roman and Medieval land division. The early Neolithic is represented by just two pits. The middle Bronze Age is represented by an enclosure, which is infrequently recorded for this period in this region. The early Iron Age occupation consists of dispersed settlement including groups of post-built roundhouses. The middle Iron Age is represented by a single ring gully roundhouse, a typical form for the region, which may be on the edge of a larger settlement to the south.
Occupation then ceased and the site appears to have been used only as farmland, with just a few middle to late Roman boundary ditches, producing very little pottery. This continued until early Anglo-Saxon occupation in the form of a post-built hall, with a second activity focus represented by an unusual dispersed group of pits. The Anglo-Saxon occupation is notable in that it dates from a time and place at the limits of Anglo-Saxon expansion along the Upper Thames Valley in what was still a frontier zone.
A4 soft cover, 158pp, illustrated throughout including 13 colour plates
Monograph 24: Bronze Age, Saxon and Medieval Evidence from Wantage, Oxfordshire: Excavations at St Mary’s and St Gabriel’s Schools
Archaeological excavations close to the modern town centre of Wantage revealed a dense complex of mostly medieval features on two large parcels of land, thought to lie within the town as it was in late medieval times. The continuous occupation sequence, however, commenced in the late Saxon period with the construction of a circular or oval enclosure, various small enclosures, pens, buildings, workshops and other features and a substantial boundary ditch to the south. Finds include pottery suggesting a high status centre, supporting the view of Wantage as a Saxon royal estate. Medieval activity expanded in the 11th century with further redefinition and reorganisation which continued until the 13th or 14th century when all this activity ceased. Subsequent use of the sites was light, expect for re-cutting of the boundary ditch well into the 16th century.
The earliest finds and features were of prehistoric date with a few struck flints of Mesolithic and later date, but notably an urned cremation cemetery of Middle Bronze Age date with one urned burial radiocarbon dated to 1403-1268 BC. Early and Middle Saxon finds and deposits were few but included an inhumation burial dated to AD 775-887. Yet the range of pottery included high status vessels and whilst the focus of a contemporary settlement has not yet been revealed it is possible that the villa regia documented by AD849 lies close by. Finally, the area was orchard and fields in the 18th and 19th centuries
A4 soft cover, 49pp, illustrated throughout including 10 colour plates
Monograph 25: Neolithic, Bronze Age, Roman and Anglo-Saxon Occupation and Bronze Age Burial at Ibsley Quarry, Ibsley, Ringwood, Hampshire
Excavation in advance of mineral extraction located on the eastern terrace of the river Avon at Ibsley, north of Ringwood, revealed a wide range of sites and finds. Two episodes dominated the cut deposits examined namely those in the Bronze Age and Roman periods. The site appears to have been in use for the whole of the Bronze Age, with the earlier Bronze Age represented by four ring ditches (the remains of levelled barrows) and a few pits. One of the ring ditches was revisited for use in the middle Bronze Age as an urnfield (cremation cemetery). A probable middle Bronze Age roundhouse and a few pits were superseded by much more intensive later Bronze Age occupation in the form of roundhouses, four-post structures (granaries?), pits and a fence. A notable feature of the middle Bronze Age was the finding of a small hoard of two bronze palstaves and an armlet.
Little is known of what might have happened on the site in the Iron Age, although it was perhaps then that the barrows were levelled (ploughed out). In the Roman period, the site became a farmstead surrounded by an organized landscape of paddocks and fields, with a stone-lined well, although any buildings seem to have been outside the area excavated.
Other periods were represented by small numbers of cut features, with earlier Neolithic pits containing plain ware and Ebbsfleet ware pottery, a possible late Neolithic pit circle, and an early Anglo-Saxon sunken-floored building. The Mesolithic period was represented by flintwork and the later medieval period, surprisingly, only by a hammered silver coin and a belt buckle. The fieldwork here complements the findings of earlier phases of investigation at the quarry to the east which led to the excavation of three Early Bronze Age ring ditches in 2001.
A4 soft cover, 87pp, illustrated throughout including 17 colour plates
Monograph 26: Two Iron Age Occupation Sites on Andover Road and Cromwell Road in Winchester
This volume reports on two archaeological excavations in Winchester, one well to the north, and the other well to the south, of both the Roman town and the known Iron Age enclosure at Oram’s Arbour. Hampshire’s Iron Age provides a mixture of enclosed and unenclosed settlements, and enclosures which apparently bound no settlement.
At Andover Road, occupation began in the later part of the Middle Iron Age, and continued into the Late Iron Age and very early Roman period. Nothing here need be later than the 1st century AD. The site is dominated by a large enclosure ditch, recut several times, and smaller enclosures laid out from it. Within and around these enclosures are numerous pits, while post built structures must also be present but have proved elusive to trace. It had been expected that the site would reveal the continuation of an Iron Age settlement located in excavations to the north, and so it proved. One particularly striking aspect of the site lies in the patterns of deposition of human and articulated animal bone. Radiocarbon dating supports the site’s chronology, which is based on a secure stratified sequence.
At Cromwell Road, multi-period occupation was represented by several hundred pits and a ring gully, likely a roundhouse. Pottery and two radiocarbon dates helped to phase the occupation which dates mainly to the Iron Age. The full extent of the site was not determined and it is not known if it was open or enclosed, or indeed part of a larger settlement. The large number of pits recorded relative to just a single dwelling, suggests that Cromwell Road may represent part of a larger and longer-lived settlement, yet to be discovered.
A4 soft cover, 121pp, illustrated throughout including 13 colour plates
Monograph 27: A Bronze Age Ring Ditch and Anglo-Saxon Cemetery at Story's Meadow, Marland Land, West Meon, Hampshire
A levelled Bronze Age round barrow was fully excavated to reveal its use as a cemetery in both the Bronze Age and Anglo-Saxon periods. A central cremation burial of an unsexed adult placed in a Collared Urn was dated to 1911–1739 cal BC and is likely to date the first construction of the monument, with an inhumation burial of a young child dated to 1541–1402 cal BC placed just above the primary fills of the ring ditch providing a terminus ante quem date. Flint nodules recovered during the ditch digging were used as a source of struck flint.
Later prehistoric and Roman ploughing close to the barrow led to the infill of the upper fills of the ditch but the mound must have survived for it subsequently to be selected as the focus for a large Anglo-Saxon cemetery, with at least 49 inhumation burials (roughly equal numbers of adults and non-adults, the adults also roughly evenly split between women and men) and a single Anglo-Saxon urned cremation burial of an unsexed adult also present. Nine radiocarbon dates indicate a predominantly 6th–7th century AD date. The cemetery’s limits to south and west seem to have been defined but it may have extended further north or east; any eastwards extension will have been lost to the modern road but there is every chance that more burials could survive to the north.
A unexpected concentration of unusual skeletal pathologies was observed, including three burials of individuals who had survived trepanning, including one adolescent with leukemia; and a woman who died whilst pregnant. This may tentatively indicate that an Anglo-Saxon medical ‘specialist’ operated in the local area. Stable isotope studies indicate a non-marine diet for the population
A4 soft cover, 128pp, illustrated throughout including 32 colour plates
Monograph 28: Roman Enclosure and Early Anglo-Saxon Occupation at Top Road, Kempsford, Gloucestershire
This volume describes the results of an archaeological excavation carried out in advance of development at Kempsford on the north bank of the River Thames in Gloucestershire. Cropmarks visible in aerial photographs, and a geophysical survey, suggested the site contained Iron Age or Roman enclosures and occupation, and evaluation trenching confirmed that these were indeed present, along with some Anglo-Saxon pottery.
The excavation revealed the expected enclosed settlement, repeatedly remodelled from the Late Iron Age into later Roman times. Burials were also present, mainly from the later Roman period. The later end of the radiocarbon dating ranges could allow two of the burials to be 5th-century Anglo-Saxon rather than late Roman.
Anglo-Saxon occupation with at least six sunken-floored buildings and a post-built hall, was more unexpected. Faunal and botanical remains allowed the agricultural economy of the site to be examined and isotope analysis of the burials indicated a typical terrestrial diet albeit distinctive compared to other Roman sites. A programme of radiocarbon dating on food residues taken from Anglo-Saxon pottery revealed that the settlement was of two phases spanning the early 5th and 6th centuries but with the possibility that occupation had commenced in the late 4th century or very early 5th. This is noteworthy for a site so far up river from the Thames Estuary as it suggests this process may have been underway before the traditional end of the Roman period in AD410.
A4 soft cover, 138pp, illustrated throughout including 26 colour plates
Monograph 29: The Southern Cemetery of Roman Dorchester-on-Thames; With Evidence for Roman and Medieval Settlement
Archaeological excavations and watching briefs in the historic town of Dorchester-on-Thames in Oxfordshire have brought to light substantial new evidence for a cemetery just beyond the southern limit of the Roman town. So far, over 60 burials have been recorded and there may be at least as many more still to discover. Where datable, all appear to be late Roman. The area of the cemetery had been in domestic use in the earlier Roman period (1st to 2nd centuries AD) before the change of use to a burial ground, probably beginning in the 4th century, but possibly earlier, as two phases are represented stratigraphically. There was later, an early Saxon building on the site. Detailed osteological analysis sheds fascinating light on the lifestyle (and ailments) of Dorchester’s Roman inhabitants and suggests close genetic links amongst at least a portion of the buried population, while stable isotope analysis, on the other hand, suggests two markedly different dietary regimes.
On the High Street, just outside the northern line of Roman defences, further evidence of early Roman occupation was recovered, again replaced in the later period by burials (although only five on this site), and in this case, the area was later used for medieval occupation (backlands). This excavation sheds light on the topography of the Roman and medieval town, particularly the extra-mural Roman occupation, and hints at intensive medieval activity behind houses fronting High Street. Although the earliest phase on the site has mostly been lost to later truncation, it appears to pre-date the Roman defences (c. AD260) implying that part of the settlement, and possibly quite a densely settled area, was excluded from this protection.
A4 soft cover, 155pp, illustrated throughout including 26 colour plates
Monograph 30: Archaeological investigations At Nea Farm, Somerley, Ringwood, hampshire, 1993-2011
A long-running series of archaeological excavations spanning nearly two decades has been carried out in advance of mineral extraction on a 65ha quarry site at Nea Farm, Somerley on the plateau fringing the Avon Valley near Ringwood, Hampshire. Trial trenching and fieldwalking covered most of this area, and eventually almost 26ha were opened for excavation. For such a large area, it was perhaps inevitable that a wide range of sites and finds would be recorded. The important Upper Palaeolithic site has already been published separately, this volume takes up tracing the development of the site in later prehistoric periods when a Mesolithic flint scatter, and small numbers of pits of Earlier Neolithic and Bronze Age date make up the earliest evidence.
Subsequently, a middle Iron Age settlement was located on the plateau edge overlooking the valley. This prospered and continued in use into early Roman times, with farming of the plateau to the rear organized within a series of formal boundaries. After a short period of abandonment the same location was reused up to the end of Roman times. There was no evidence for sub-Roman or Saxon use of the explored areas.
A manor of Somerley was first documented in AD1272, but the fieldwork here explored a part of the manorial complex dating from the 11th century, including four timber buildings.
The volume presents reports on fairly substantial assemblages of pottery, worked flint and fired clay (including kiln/furnace structures), and smaller quantities of other finds and environmental evidence, along with the results of a programme of radiocarbon dating.
A4 soft cover, 140pp, illustrated throughout including 13 colour plates
Monograph 31: Medieval Occupation and a 17th-Century Tobacco Pipe Kiln at 22 to 26 Spital Street, Dartford, Kent
Excavation in advance of commercial development in the heart of Dartford provided evidence for several periods of the site’s development. The earliest evidence was Roman: a ditch and a pit, together with residual pottery and coins in later features. The post-Roman occupation begins from the 13th century leading to unbroken use of the site through to the present. The 13th-century use comprised dark earth deposits and three cut features. It was from the mid/late 13th century to late 14th century that occupation began in earnest with the construction of two masonry buildings, one substantial and the other smaller. Both survived as chalk and flint foundations together with chalk and beaten-earth floors. Two stacked-tile hearths in the southern part of the site suggest the presence of another structure. The buildings continued in use into the early-mid 15th century, with internal alterations.
In the mid-late 15th century another building of chalk and flint was constructed close to the frontage of Spital Street, which housed ovens and hearths. In the late 15th or 16th century this building was superseded by another stone-built (or stone-footed) building.
In the 17th century, the nature of the site changed, and a clay pipe kiln was housed in another stone building, providing evidence for the earliest such manufactory from the town.
A4 soft cover, 94pp, illustrated throughout including 15 colour plates
Monograph 32: Bronze Age, Roman and Saxon Burials and Occupation on Land to the West of The Lea, Denham, Buckinghamshire
A long-running programme of archaeological excavation in advance of quarrying has examined an area of some 11 hectares at The Lea. It has revealed prehistoric (likely early or middle Bronze Age) ring ditches (ploughed out barrows) which remained focal points in the landscape into Roman and indeed Saxon times, when a mixed-rite cemetery was laid out around them.
A field system of middle Bronze Age date was marked by ditches and gullies which formed a rectilinear arrangement of small fields and/or paddocks. It is likely this was also still in use in the later prehistoric period when a roundhouse was constructed.
There was then a long hiatus until the site was re-occupied in the Roman period. Early Roman activity included a field system, with the middle Roman sub-phase represented by enclosures and another field system. Late Roman features include enclosures and boundary ditches. One of the enclosures contained a well, an oven and corn-driers.
The main focus of the report is on the cemetery which contained pyre sites, inhumations and rare bustum cremation burials. This combination is highly unusual. This cemetery continued in use into the early Saxon period. Another burial, set well apart from the cemetery, in an unusually large grave, was richly furnished with jewellery.
Medieval and post-medieval activity included field ditches and a post-medieval trackway. The site produced substantial assemblages of prehistoric and Roman pottery, and Roman brick and tile and metalwork, but unfortunately bone survival was very poor. The chronology is supported by eight radiocarbon dates.
A4 soft cover, 145pp, illustrated throughout including 28 colour plates
Monograph 33: Late Iron Age, Roman and Saxon Occupation at Courtwick Lane, Littlehampton, West Sussex
Archaeological fieldwork running over several episodes of development including evaluation, three phases of excavation and an extended watching brief, revealed a broadly agricultural landscape of late Iron Age to Roman (3rd century) date, comprising large enclosures and droveways. A large, possibly defensive, ditch of Iron Age date suggested a substantial settlement within the vicinity, though structures of this date were not encountered. Eighteen Roman cremation burials of 1st-3rd century date were recovered from the enclosed areas (11 urned, 2 unurned and five token or redeposited human bone). Several Saxon sunken-featured buildings and a possible timber post structure indicate a small Early Saxon settlement on the site. Over 800 struck flints suggest limited activity in the Mesolithic and Neolithic periods (a single pit was the only Neolithic feature), while small numbers of pits represent limited Bronze Age and Middle Iron Age activity. The volume presents reports on substantial pottery assemblages, and smaller quantities of other finds. The chronology is supported by a programme of radiocarbon dating.
A4 soft cover, 170pp, illustrated throughout including 19 colour plates
Monograph 34: Bronze Age, Iron Age and Roman Occupation at Northbrook College, Littlehampton Road, West Durrington, West Sussex
This volume details the results of an excavation covering 4ha on a site to the north of the Goring Roman villa complex, which had been rescue excavated in the 1980s. A few late Middle Bronze features present tentative evidence for occupation along with ephemeral traces of a possible field system. The Later Bronze Age to Early Iron Age is represented by post-built roundhouses and possibly ring-gully structures, extensive spreads of pits and postholes comprising unenclosed and seemingly unstructured settlement. This was succeeded in the Middle Iron Age by distinctive ring-gully structures. Four radiocarbon dates define the chronological extent of this phase. Economic data show a typical range of domesticated animals and cereal production, though few facilities for large-scale storage of grain. Late Iron Age use maintained the pattern of the Middle Iron Age settlement, with further ring gullies, a stock enclosure and a long curving boundary ditch. Again the Iron Age pattern of settlement seemed to influence Roman use of the site with little evidence for disruption. Roman occupation, of modest status typical of rural settlement, included a large stock enclosure and a series of paddocks while respecting the Iron Age boundary. The pattern of economic production is again unexceptional. Roman occupation continued into the 3rd century after which it may have transmuted into the Goring villa complex. The settlement, including the villa complex, appears to have gone out of use at the end of the 3rd century AD. Finally, excavation at Lower Northrook Farm explored the remains of Northbrook Mansion and traced its development sequence: summary results of this are also presented.
A4 soft cover, 214pp, illustrated throughout including 19 colour plates
Monograph 35: Dryleaze Farm Quarry, Siddington, Gloucestershire: Archaeological Excavations, 2007-2019
This monograph presents results of long-running archaeological investigations in advance of mineral extraction, covering almost 50ha, which have revealed the use of this landscape in every period from the Neolithic to the present, demonstrating very different intensities both by period and by area. The results are supported by an extensive series of radiocarbon dates, some of which challenge or extend accepted chronologies.
The Neolithic evidence consists of both earlier and later Neolithic pits. Of particular note was the discovery of a post-built rectangular building with probable Grooved Ware associations. In the early Bronze Age a barrow cemetery was represented by at least three ring ditches with two associated burials. Another, unrelated early Bronze Age ring ditch was recorded together with what are interpreted as cenotaph burials. An urn pit containing two urns and an inhumation burial are likely to be of a similar date. Elsewhere, early Bronze Age pits containing Beaker pottery and a post-built roundhouse were excavated. In the middle Bronze Age, nine burnt mounds were spread across the centre of the site, on the margins of a palaeochannel. Curiously, no contemporary occupation sites, and very few Middle Bronze Age artefacts were recognized.
The Iron Age saw land divisions in the form of a pit alignment (aligned on and perhaps replaced by, a ditch) and a long segmented ditch. A small post-built roundhouse, stock pen and a fence line are considered to be early Iron Age, as are a number of large ditches and fence lines.
In an open or lightly wooded environment, middle Iron Age settlement commenced with a ‘banjo’-type ring-gully complex followed by two phases of enclosure related to animal husbandry. Another Middle Iron Age settlement is represented by four roundhouses, pits and postholes and a droveway. A trackway complex extending for several hundred metres has Iron Age origins, and was a dominant landscape feature into Roman times; it also seems to have influenced the layout of medieval cultivation. A further unenclosed cluster of ring gully houses dates to the Late Iron Age.
The Roman period saw mainly episodes of land division, including the digging of an elongated enclosure ditch which utilized the long established Iron Age trackway and enclosure ditch. but the only Roman occupation was a cluster of posthole structures of uncertain function.
Medieval and Post-medieval ridge and furrow and several episodes of Post-medieval land division also cross the site. Notably these include a trackway known as Black Pitts Road, on early enclosure maps, which represents the fossilized line of the Roman trackway.
A4 soft cover, 208pp, illustrated throughout including 45 colour plates
Monograph 37: Bronze Age, Iron Age and Roman Settlement at Toddington Lane, Littlehampton, West Sussex
Archaeological excavations in advance of an extensive development at Littlehampton,on the West Sussex coastal plain, examined part of a large multi-period settlement complex comprising deposits principally of later Bronze Age, Iron Age and Roman dates. One large site north of Toddington Lane and one smaller site to its south were investigated in ten areas based on the results of earlier evaluation, but it is clear that a substantial contiguous settlement complex that had extended for more than 400m had been extensively truncated by previous development on the sites. The Bronze Age deposits included a possible ritual shaft, and for the coastal plain, a rarely encountered ring ditch. The later Bronze Age is also notable for the presence of a field system. Evidence for Middle Iron Age occupation is relatively slight, lacking classic ring-gully houses but mainly represented by enclosure ditches. The majority of the features at both sites belong to the Late Iron Age into Roman period and comprise a complex farmstead. The settlement seemingly flourished until abandonment in the later 2nd or early 3rd century, well before the traditional end of Roman Britain, which is an increasingly observed pattern for sites on the coastal plain. Indeed, the smaller, southern site was abandoned even before this. Apart from farming, the site was not occupied again until the construction of horticultural nurseries in the 20th century. Both sites provided substantial pottery assemblages, and the prehistoric chronology is supported by nine radiocarbon dates. Among the other finds, the number of quern stones is notable.
A4 soft cover, 178pp, illustrated throughout including 20 colour plates
Monograph 38: A Bronze Age Triple Ditch Barrow and Middle Iron Age Settlement at Wetstone Bridge Quarry, near Marston Meysey, Gloucestershire
This volume in the TVAS Monograph Series details archaeological excavations covering almost 18ha in advance of quarrying, in an area now extensively explored through many similar projects. The work primarily examined an extensive area of Iron Age occupation demonstrating repeated use of the same location from the 6th century BC down to the mid 1st century BC, with the chronology supported by radiocarbon dating. The settlement was unenclosed except that it lay on an isthmus of slightly higher ground bounded on two sides by palaeochannels. As many as 22 ring-gully house sites have been identified, some recut two, three or even four times on the same axis. A number of the ring gullies were integral with small enclosures (pens), and others contained entrances defined by short antennae ditches producing a ‘banjo’ form. Although the main complex itself was unenclosed, earlier phases of the use of this location included land division associated with more ring gullies and enclosures, remodelled at least once. Despite an extensive sampling programme, almost no charred cereal grains were recovered suggesting that the site was predominantly a pastoral farming endeavour, as is also suggested by older cattle forming an unusually high proportion of the faunal assemblage. The field boundaries may have been to assist dairy farming.
In addition an unusual triple ring monument was excavated. It contained no closely datable artefacts, burial deposits nor direct dating evidence, but was stratigraphically later than a waterlogged pit which produced a radiocarbon date of 2204-1965 cal BC. A dense cluster of pits and postholes including a roundhouse is thought to represent an area of Later Bronze Age occupation. Another isolated roundhouse is also of presumed Bronze Age date.
There is little evidence for use of the site after the Iron Age settlement was abandoned, until the digging of ditches, field boundaries and water meadows in late post-Medieval times. The site is considered in relation to other nearby excavations covering similar periods.
A4 soft cover, 90pp, illustrated throughout including 20 colour plates
Monograph 39: A Medieval Tilery and occupation at 40–68 Silver Street, Reading, Berkshire
This volume describes the results of an open area excavation undertaken in two stages on the western side of Silver Street which revealed several phases of activity. The first occupation of the site consisted of a Medieval tilery comprising two tile kilns and a well, dated between the 12th and 14th centuries AD, with the last firing of one of the kilns returning an archaeomagnetic date between AD1268–1328. That the tilery was supplying tiles to the Abbey, is demonstrated by designs on wasters from the kilns here matching designs on tiles recorded in-situ in the floor of the Abbey cloister in excavations of the 1960s. Discovery of these medieval deposits at this location along Silver Street has added modestly to the known extent of the medieval town. The abandonment of the tilery was followed by a phase of intensive occupation with pit digging and evidence of a cellared building fronting Silver Street, dated between the 14th and 16th centuries. Evidence of post-medieval occupation was more scattered with a domestic oven dated between the 16th and 17th centuries and a spread of pits suggesting a continuation of the domestic occupation of the previous phase. This is the second discovery of medieval tile kilns in this part of Reading with a previous finding just 150m to the northeast last fired between AD1365–1400. Together, these findings might be indicative of the presence of an industrial suburb of the town, and which could be reflected in 16th century placename evidence, of ‘Tylertoft’ and ‘Tyle Crosse’. Expected traces of the 17th Century Civil War defensive work were not located and it is suggested that as the site lay on the edge of the contemporary town, the defences passed just to the south so as to include the site.
A4 soft cover, 102pp, illustrated throughout including 23 colour plates
Monograph 40: Iron Age and Roman enclosure with New Forest pottery kilns at Plumley Wood Quarry, Harbridge, Ringwood, Hampshire.
The first phase of archaeological excavations in advance of quarrying revealed densely packed evidence for use of the area over four or five periods, apparently with little or no continuity between phases. The earliest occupation took the form of two post-built roundhouses, tentatively dated to the early Iron Age which were succeeded in the middle Iron Age by ring-gully type roundhouses set amidst a very loosely structured field system. The site changed dramatically in the Late Iron Age with the creation of a concentric (double or triple) ditched trapezoidal enclosure housing two large circular structures (one of those itself concentric) and with a small rectangular structure interpreted as a shrine set beyond it to the east, and perhaps another roundhouse south of that. There was apparently then a significant break, with no early Roman activity on the site. In the middle Roman period, the area of the former enclosures was occupied by rectangular buildings and incorporated into a rectilinear field system. This field system was modified in successive phases into the late Roman period and while the layout then changes little in its fundamentals, the use of the site changes again quite substantially, with the creation and use of three or four kilns for the manufacture of New Forest Roman pottery. These phases of site use also see more developments of the field system, and larger buildings. Apart from the obvious evidence for pottery production, there was some (slight) evidence for the usual small-scale iron-working expected on a Roman rural site (smithing, with no evidence for production) and the presence of querns shows the processing of cereals. Other evidence for the economy of the site (either as a producer or a consumer site) was scant, with few finds in other categories, no animal bone surviving and few charred plant remains, with the exception of one late Roman posthole which produced hundreds of charred cereal grains, including barley, wheat and specifically spelt, so that an arable component to the economy can be envisaged.
A4 soft cover, 174pp, illustrated throughout including 29 colour plates
Monograph 41: A Roman Villa at Street Farm, Tackley, Oxfordshire
This monograph presents results of archaeological investigations in advance of development in 2017-18 at Street Farm, Tackley, in the Cherwell valley of northern Oxfordshire. Two phases of enclosure on the site predate the main occupation and are presumed to be later Iron Age. The main phase of use commenced with Roman occupation in the 1st century AD and with clear continuity until the early 5th century. The main component of the early occupation consisted of an Early Roman farmstead with a rectangular shaped post-type building. This was replaced within the 2nd century by at least two buildings now comprising part of a villa complex, which developed into a high status residential complex with mosaic floors, painted wall plaster, and a possible bath-house during the 3rd century. The buildings were abandoned in the later 4th century and partly robbed and partly collapsed, but was then partly reoccupied. The whole site appears to have been abandoned very early in the 5th century AD and was overploughed and robbed again in later Saxon and Medieval times. Despite this, the building remains survived to considerable depth and demolition rubble had at least partially protected mosaic floors which survived well enough for one of these to be conserved for display in Tackley village. Substantial assemblages of pottery, metalwork and many other finds are reported in detail and the animal bones add considerably to understanding the changing diet of the inhabitants in different phases of the occupation. A small cemetery consisting of eight cremation burials appears to date to the Early Bronze Age, although only one of these burials was well dated.
A4 soft cover, 225pp, illustrated throughout including 43 colour plates
Booklet 1: Excavation at the Roman Villa Street farm, Tackley, Oxfordshire
This booklet presents results of archaeological investigations in advance of development in 2017-18 at Street Farm, Tackley, in the Cherwell valley of northern Oxfordshire. This is a condensed version of monograph 41. Two phases of enclosure on the site predate the main occupation and are presumed to be later Iron Age. The main phase of use commenced with Roman occupation in the 1st century AD and with clear continuity until the early 5th century. The main component of the early occupation consisted of an Early Roman farmstead with a rectangular shaped post-type building. This was replaced within the 2nd century by at least two buildings now comprising part of a villa complex, which developed into a high status residential complex with mosaic floors, painted wall plaster, and a possible bath-house during the 3rd century. The buildings were abandoned in the later 4th century and partly robbed and partly collapsed, but was then partly reoccupied. The whole site appears to have been abandoned very early in the 5th century AD and was overploughed and robbed again in later Saxon and Medieval times. Despite this, the building remains survived to considerable depth and demolition rubble had at least partially protected mosaic floors which survived well enough for one of these to be conserved for display in Tackley village. Substantial assemblages of pottery, metalwork and many other finds are reported in detail and the animal bones add considerably to understanding the changing diet of the inhabitants in different phases of the occupation. A small cemetery consisting of eight cremation burials appears to date to the Early Bronze Age, although only one of these burials was well dated. Please note P&P for this item is reduced to £1.53.
Soft cover 21cm x 21cm square, 14pp, illustrated throughout