Further research:

Back in 2008 TVAS excavated a Late Saxon Period massacre grave at St Giles in Oxford (see previous information release here).

The 35 men and boys (children) were thought to be 'sprouting like cockle amongst the wheat' (Blair 1994) and a pogrom was carried out on orders of King Aethelred against the Danes who had raided and settled in England. It became known as the St. Brice's day massacre of 1002 AD.

Viking skeleton
Above: sk1756 during excavations at St. Johns, Oxford.

Newly published research has studied the 'Viking' Diaspora in the late Saxon period by DNA analysis and a 2nd degree relationship (i.e. half-brothers, nephew-uncle, or grandson-grandfather) has been made between one of the Oxford skeletons (sk1756) and one in Denmark from Galgedil on Funen. This discovery strengthens the notion that the massacre in Oxford was indeed that of Danes.

Viking skeleton skull with blade damage
Above: Skull after cleaning showing blade damage.

The article in Nature can be found here:

Margaryan, A., Lawson, D.J., Sikora, M. et al. 2020, Population genomics of the Viking world. Nature 585, 390-396


Blair 1994, 168 quoting Anglo-Saxon charter S909; transl. Whitelock 1979, 591; Swanton 2000, 135 has an insignificantly different translation

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